Archive for the ‘Old military Aircraft’ Category

MiG-25 Foxbat ( II )

November 21st, 2013

MiG-25jpg

Description of the structure

 

It seems to me that it would be best to introduce the technical characteristics of this rather unconventional after all machines on the example of the variant MiG- 25PD , currently the only varieties that are used for hunting in the reorganized Russian Air Force. So heavy interceptor MiG- 25PD is basically a single seat , twin-engine grzbietopłatem built in the classical system , with redoubled vertical tail . As mentioned above , the structure of the aircraft is made of 80% nickel steel type WNS -2 , WNS WNS -4 -5 , in 8-9% of titanium and 11% of a special thermal resistant aluminum alloy -type D19 . The system is the strength of the hull tank divided into compartments inside reinforced stringers , zespawanym airtight and filled with fuel. Rails are very densely spaced , at 25 minimetrów places . Hull coating has a thickness of 0.6 millimeters. Received wing cover thickness from 3 mm to 0.8 mm hull at the ends . Most heaters in place of the airframe , especially the leading edges of wings and tail were covered with a layer of titanium. The hull in front of an oval , flattened sides. The air intakes, a more wide cross-section similar to a rectangle , distributed over the front and rear . At the rear of the hull container placed on the parachute . The wing slant 42 degrees at the hull and 4o degrees ‘ at the ends ; trailing edge bevel around 9 degrees. The wings are short and broad , with a lift of negative -5 degrees , two degrees of angle adjustment and the relative thickness of 3.7% in the base of the wing and 4.76% at the end. On the upper surface of each wing is called . aerodynamic ridge on the ends of thin trays of equipment fitted at the same time so . weight against flatterowe . Valves with ventilator can be rotated by 25 degrees to 45 degrees off and landing . Darts swing about 25 degrees. Tail plane plate with a taper of 50 degrees along the leading edge span of 8.74 m and area of 9.81 m2. Swings clockwise or differential ( for longitudinal control in flight at high speed ) . The maximum deflection of the tail along the leading edge is in the range +13 / -32 degrees. The tail surfaces are doubled and parted to the side . They are complemented by two under the aerodynamic hull guides , slant front edge of 54 degrees , the back four steps . The maximum deflection of the rudder is 25 degrees . The machine has an automatic control system SAU- 155P1 , integrated with automatic adjustment of the control ARU- 9 . Chassis support standard three . Shin chassis has dual front wheel measuring 700 x 200 mm , additionally equipped with a fender and pulled forward in the hull. Other main wheels are sized 1300 x 360mm . It is also possible the establishment of the main landing gear skis ( next to the wheel ) . Track of the main landing gear is 3.85 m , and the base chassis – 5,139 m The braking during landing pilot can use two parachutes braking system ( It seems to me that it would be best to introduce the technical characteristics of this rather unconventional after all machines on the example of the variant MiG- 25PD , currently the only varieties that are used for hunting in the reorganized Russian Air Force.   So heavy interceptor MiG- 25PD is basically a single seat , twin-engine grzbietopłatem built in the classical system , with redoubled vertical tail . As mentioned above , the structure of the aircraft is made of 80% nickel steel type WNS -2 , WNS WNS -4 -5 , in 8-9% of titanium and 11% of a special thermal resistant aluminum alloy -type D19 . The system is the strength of the hull tank divided into compartments inside reinforced stringers , zespawanym airtight and filled with fuel. Rails are very densely spaced , at 25 minimetrów places . Hull coating has a thickness of 0.6 millimeters. Received wing cover thickness from 3 mm to 0.8 mm hull at the ends . Most heaters in place of the airframe , especially the leading edges of wings and tail were covered with a layer of titanium. The hull in front of an oval , flattened sides. The air intakes, a more wide cross-section similar to a rectangle , distributed over the front and rear . At the rear of the hull container placed on the parachute . The wing slant 42 degrees at the hull and 4o degrees ‘ at the ends ; trailing edge bevel around 9 degrees. The wings are short and broad , with a lift of negative -5 degrees , two degrees of angle adjustment and the relative thickness of 3.7% in the base of the wing and 4.76% at the end. On the upper surface of each wing is called . aerodynamic ridge on the ends of thin trays of equipment fitted at the same time so . weight against flatterowe . Valves with ventilator can be rotated by 25 degrees to 45 degrees off and landing . Darts swing about 25 degrees. Tail plane plate with a taper of 50 degrees along the leading edge span of 8.74 m and area of ​​9.81 m2. Swings clockwise or differential ( for longitudinal control in flight at high speed ) . The maximum deflection of the tail along the leading edge is in the range +13 / -32 degrees. The tail surfaces are doubled and parted to the side . They are complemented by two under the aerodynamic hull guides , slant front edge of 54 degrees , the back four steps . The maximum deflection of the rudder is 25 degrees . The machine has an automatic control system SAU- 155P1 , integrated with automatic adjustment of the control ARU- 9 . Chassis support standard three . Shin chassis has dual front wheel measuring 700 x 200 mm , additionally equipped with a fender and pulled forward in the hull. Other main wheels are sized 1300 x 360mm . It is also possible the establishment of the main landing gear skis ( next to the wheel ) . Track of the main landing gear is 3.85 m , and the base chassis – 5,139 m The braking during landing pilot can use two parachutes braking system with 60 and 50 m2. On the left ridge kadłubowym founded lowered to the bottom of the boom that hit just before landing on the concrete , and will automatically release the braking parachute . The drive unit are two turbojet with afterburner stacked next to each other in the back of the fuselage. The first prototype was assembled engines R- 15B -300 with the maximum at 73.55 kN ( 7,500 lb ) and with afterburner 100.12 kN ( 10 210 lb ) . The aircraft MiG- 25P was assumed engine R- 15B -300 of the burn-up increased to 109.83 kN ( 11 200 lb ) , and the string without burning remained unchanged. The in-service aircraft MiG -25 used a newer engine R- 15BD -300 . Last manufactured engines R- 15BD -300 had about 1000 hours life . Fuel weighing approximately 15000 kg (depending on modification) contained in the six compartments of the hull , four tanks in the wings and vertical ballasts . there is also the possibility of attaching to the hull of the tank with a capacity of 5280 liters , length of 11.05 m and a diameter of 1.0 m (except aircraft early series ) . The aircraft MiG- 25PD fuel capacity is 14470 kg in internal tanks and 4470 kg in the tank accessories. In the electronic – fighting equipment consists of the MiG – 25PD order: – Doppler radar station Sapfir -25 (also known as S -500 or N -005 ) versions of the RP- 25 , RP -25M or RP – 25mn . It has the ability to detect targets flying against the ground. Detection range bomber type TU -16 flying at high altitude is 10o – 110 km , and the range of automatic tracking of 75-80 km. Against the background of these land values ​​are 27-30 km and 22-25 km). Azimuth observation zone is from 30 to 60 stpni , depending on the mode. In addition, a cone search can be shifted by 56 degrees. In the corner to raise the radar antenna moves 14 degrees , and the axis of observation sector may be inclined by +52 / -42 degrees . The radiolocator Smiercz -A2 used in the earlier Migue – 25P has an automatic target tracking range of 50 km and a detection range for the effective reflection surface equal to 16m2 – 100 km . These data correspond to the target size of the tactical bomber . Gas is looking for target 60 degrees in azimuth and angle of 6 degrees to improve . It can work in two -óch shortwave (2 and 3- centimeter ) . – An integrated complex guidance and navigation ( Russian engineers apparently very delighted in determining the self-created complex electronic components with the word ” kopleks ” ) inspiration -11 , which provides , among others automatic return to the set route with three turning points , returning to one of four preset performance of airports and landing incident to a height of 50 meters . MiG – 25P and MiG – 25PD cooperate with ground guidance system Wozduch – 1M. Guidance on the target can be performed in automatic mode or command at that . In automatic mode, the command of the ground station via the on-board guidance reception apparatus azure ‘ and control system SAU- 155P1 is sent directly to the reins of the aircraft, without the remote control. In command mode at that the same commands are transmitted to the pilot in the form of messages on -board instruments . Additional arrows on indicators of the course, speed and altitude position themselves near the value calculated by the ground system . The purpose of the pilot is to rip the flight to the instructions printed from the ground. This way the pilot is conducted until the capture to the radar board , he takes the initiative further , with possible potential hints of earth. – Other equipment of the machine MiG- 25PD is a standard set of equipment of Soviet fighter aircraft of these years. The equipment includes , among others, Gas active response SO- 69, the device corresponding to the SRO -2N , designed to cooperate with the ground-based radars , as well as the module corresponding to an asking – SRZO -15 complex warning BEACON -3 . Navigation equipment consists of a small amount of radio altimeter RW- 3 and RW -4 , high-altitude radio altimeter RW- 18 and RW -19 automatic radio compass ARK -10 , the receiver signals from MRP- 56P marker , radio- navigation system dog tags close RSBN -6S and the system instrument Landing SP -50 . The aircraft has two radios : R- 832M (for FM ) and R -864 ( to KF ) . The potential battle MiG – 25P and MiG – 25PD is suspended on four arms , placed directly under the wings . It consists of usually four target missiles air-to- air R- 40 in the trendy widely today in aviation Soviet system of several varieties of the same rocket. In the case of missile R -40 ( NATO known as AA -6 ” Acrid ” ) for initial use radar guided variant of the R- 40R and R- 40T heat . Recently, the MiG- 25PD aircraft armament consists of four modernized missile R- 40D versions of R- 40RD and R- 40TD or two missiles R- 40D and four air combat maneuvering missiles R- 60M . as far as I know, the machine interceptor version , due probably to the expected nature of its possible future combat missions , shooting weapons abandoned . the fighter is equipped with automatically lockable in the cockpit . moving part covers leans to the right. aircraft is a single-seat , and the pilot is seated on a chair katapultowanym KM- 1M. with 60 and 50 m2. On the left ridge kadłubowym founded lowered to the bottom of the boom that hit just before landing on the concrete , and will automatically release the braking parachute . The drive unit are two turbojet with afterburner stacked next to each other in the back of the fuselage. The first prototype was assembled engines R- 15B -300 with the maximum at 73.55 kN ( 7,500 lb ) and with afterburner 100.12 kN ( 10 210 lb ) . The aircraft MiG- 25P was assumed engine R- 15B -300 of the burn-up increased to 109.83 kN ( 11 200 lb ) , and the string without burning remained unchanged. The in-service aircraft MiG -25 used a newer engine R- 15BD -300 . Last manufactured engines R- 15BD -300 had about 1000 hours life . Fuel weighing approximately 15000 kg (depending on modification) contained in the six compartments of the hull , four tanks in the wings and vertical ballasts . there is also the possibility of attaching to the hull of the tank with a capacity of 5280 liters , length of 11.05 m and a diameter of 1.0 m (except aircraft early series ) . The aircraft MiG- 25PD fuel capacity is 14470 kg in internal tanks and 4470 kg in the tank accessories. In the electronic – fighting equipment consists of the MiG – 25PD order: – Doppler radar station Sapfir -25 (also known as S -500 or N -005 ) versions of the RP- 25 , RP -25M or RP – 25mn . It has the ability to detect targets flying against the ground. Detection range bomber type TU -16 flying at high altitude is 10o – 110 km , and the range of automatic tracking of 75-80 km. Against the background of these land values are 27-30 km and 22-25 km). Azimuth observation zone is from 30 to 60 stpni , depending on the mode. In addition, a cone search can be shifted by 56 degrees. In the corner to raise the radar antenna moves 14 degrees , and the axis of observation sector may be inclined by +52 / -42 degrees . The radiolocator Smiercz -A2 used in the earlier Migue – 25P has an automatic target tracking range of 50 km and a detection range for the effective reflection surface equal to 16m2 – 100 km . These data correspond to the target size of the tactical bomber . Gas is looking for target 60 degrees in azimuth and angle of 6 degrees to improve . It can work in two -óch shortwave (2 and 3- centimeter ) . – An integrated complex guidance and navigation ( Russian engineers apparently very delighted in determining the self-created complex electronic components with the word ” kopleks ” ) inspiration -11 , which provides , among others automatic return to the set route with three turning points , returning to one of four preset performance of airports and landing incident to a height of 50 meters . MiG – 25P and MiG – 25PD cooperate with ground guidance system Wozduch – 1M. Guidance on the target can be performed in automatic mode or command at that . In automatic mode, the command of the ground station via the on-board guidance reception apparatus azure ‘ and control system SAU- 155P1 is sent directly to the reins of the aircraft, without the remote control. In command mode at that the same commands are transmitted to the pilot in the form of messages on -board instruments . Additional arrows on indicators of the course, speed and altitude position themselves near the value calculated by the ground system . The purpose of the pilot is to rip the flight to the instructions printed from the ground. This way the pilot is conducted until the capture to the radar board , he takes the initiative further , with possible potential hints of earth. – Other equipment of the machine MiG- 25PD is a standard set of equipment of Soviet fighter aircraft of these years. The equipment includes , among others, Gas active response SO- 69, the device corresponding to the SRO -2N , designed to cooperate with the ground-based radars , as well as the module corresponding to an asking – SRZO -15 complex warning BEACON -3 . Navigation equipment consists of a small amount of radio altimeter RW- 3 and RW -4 , high-altitude radio altimeter RW- 18 and RW -19 automatic radio compass ARK -10 , the receiver signals from MRP- 56P marker , radio- navigation system close RSBN -6S and the system instrument Landing SP -50 . The aircraft has two radios : R- 832M (for FM ) and R -864 ( to KF ) . The potential battle MiG – 25P and MiG – 25PD is suspended on four arms , placed directly under the wings . It consists of usually four target missiles air-to- air R- 40 in the trendy widely today in aviation Soviet system of several varieties of the same rocket. In the case of missile R -40 ( NATO known as AA -6 ” Acrid ” ) for initial use radar guided variant of the R- 40R and R- 40T heat . Recently, the MiG- 25PD aircraft armament consists of four modernized missile R- 40D versions of R- 40RD and R- 40TD or two missiles R- 40D and four air combat maneuvering missiles R- 60M . as far as I know, the machine interceptor version , due probably to the expected nature of its possible future combat missions , shooting weapons abandoned . the fighter is equipped with automatically lockable in the cockpit . moving part covers leans to the right. aircraft is a single-seat , and the pilot is seated on a chair katapultowanym KM- 1M.

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MiG-25 Foxbat

November 21st, 2013

mig

History :

 

Interceptor MiG -25 ( NATO reporting in ” Foxbat ” ) was developed by the Soviet design bureau . A. Mikoyan in the late 50’s and 60’s. When the new design was first observed during the test , caused considerable consternation among Western experts and analysts. It seemed that the new fighter is a clear progression and a big technological leap in the development of Soviet military aircraft structures . No one back then could not believe that , in fact, his performance is much weaker than expected , and even design the airframe proved to be more simpler that originally anticipated . Design work on the new interceptor advanced high-speed horizontal flight launched around mid- 50s on order of command of the Air Force Air Defence . Under the assumptions of future fighter aircraft was to be the Soviet riposte to a new generation of American dog tags flying machines that are able to in-flight at that altitude close to the border three times the speed of sound or even slightly exceed it . In addition, the new design should be characterized by a strong , modern weapons , including rocket having a new air-to- air medium or long range , and a modern avionics allowing to operate properly regardless of the prevailing meteorological conditions. To be fair that raised above requirements were quite high for the period of the late 50’s and 60’s. High performance developed at that time in the United States for the USAAF and SAC ( ” Strategic Air Command” – the strategic air command ) the construction of a large supersonic bomber XB -70 ” Valkyrie ” and the high-altitude fighter A-11 – a prototype of the later YF -12A (which is a derivative of among other things, high-speed reconnaissance aircraft SR -71 ) accounted for the then defense systems very serious and difficult to solve the problem . In 1961 , Americans finally had to realize that the project XB -70 proved to be too ambitious at that time as to their technical capabilities and design . However, despite the design of the new Soviet fighter aircraft MiG -25 was already in an advanced stage such that it was decided to continue the entire project . In developing the new aircraft with such a high-performance , knows how to fly at a speed of about Mach 3 from the start began to pile up more difficulties and controversies related to this issue. One of the biggest problems to which they have to face the structural unit Artyom Mikoyan was the phenomenon . thermal barrier , or excessive heating of some elements of the airframe as a result of the forces of air resistance .Thus, predicted that the friction aerodynamic flight with such a high speed will cause heating of the surface of the carrier aircraft to 300 degrees, which is significantly above the theoretical maximum temperature of 130 degrees. Of course, in these conditions, most of the aluminum alloys used at that time was losing its mechanical properties , so the design of combat aircraft flying at speeds exceeding Mach 3 value then posed a very serious difficulties and required zastowania the latest developments in the field of metallurgy and newly developed welding processes to obtain new metal alloys with a much higher strength than before . It was extremely important to prevent the phenomenon known . fatigue , that is, to avoid breakage and possible deformation of the whole structure of the airframe during flight. There was also some questionable issues in relation to the union of elements in order to achieve the highest level of durability. Resolved in a manner quite radical – 80 % coverage of the plane is made of hardened steel, 11% of aluminum and 8-9 % of titanium and its derivatives. No less hassle caused the aerodynamic problems . In order to achieve a satisfactory level of stability and good maneuverability without sacrificing the intended performance such as high speed and altitude , the designers chose a novel at that time the configuration of large , moderately strong diagonal thin wings , structurally sophisticated , adjustable geometry , and side air vents to motors and dual vertical tail . To ensure an appropriate range and endurance as much as about 70% of the volume of the interior design was used for fuel tanks . For diesel engines , avionics and cockpit systems developed modern insulation and cooling . In 1963 built the first prototype of a future interceptor MiG -25 , designated as the default e- 155P (actually Je- 155Pi where the abbreviation “Pi ” means ” Pieriechwatczik ” – intercept ) . Took off on the first flight March 6, 1964 year flown by an experienced pilot of the factory Alexander Fedotov (who many years later, in 1977, made ​​the first test flight of a new fighter front – the famous MiG -29 ” Fulcrum ” ) . already above the first attempt in the air revealed a number of new problems. need to redesign the wings turned out , changing the angle wedge of 2 degrees and giving it a height of negative 5 degrees. then already improved prototype E – 155P and three more machines were sent immediately to the state tests that were conducted in 1967. Upon successful passing of the new aircraft were sent in 1969 to the production. After it was first presented to the public during the air show at the airport Domodiewo 9 July 1967 year. Experts from the North Atlantic , probably assuming that this is the aircraft already in the service of the Soviet air Force, or it is already very close to being submitted to it , gave it the name of NATO’s codename ” Foxbat ” , which as did any code started with the letter F , provided the fighters were built in the USSR. identified it at the wrong initially as the MiG -23 . Russians of that , purely academic though , mistakes obviously did not deign to correct . the first prototype, serial version of the fighter was flown by Peter Ostapienkę 9 September 1964 year. A more complex variant , designated MiG- 25P, had fully integrated weapons systems . aircraft received a new front fuselage , located under the cover of a large radar antenna aiming Smiercz -A E – 155P -1. After that produced nine aircraft to carry out the final state qualifying test . Given such high performance capabilities and was born as a prototype version of the finding , referred to as E – 155R . performance far exceeded original expectations , so under the new designation E -266 ( Je- 266) two planes E and E – 155P – 155R made a series of flights, a record . fixed the new world records – on the fly along a closed circuit and altitude – exceeding the value achieved by the YF -12A ( a derivative of the Lockheed a-11 .) on October 5 1967 years Komarov test pilot set a new speed record on the fly along a closed circuit 500 kilometers , amounting to 2,981.5 km / h Although the E – 155P -1 first flew in September 1964 but he did not receive military commissions approval until 1970. Moreover, , does not enter the equipment WWS ( ” Wojennyjo – Wzdusznych Force ” – that is, the Air Force ) until 1973. MiG – 25P had a new radar RP- 25 Smiercz -A ( in NATO code named ” Fox Fire ” ) with a detection range of nearly 100 km and tracking range of 50 km . He could detect and track targets independently or using data from ground-based radar , provided the aircraft by radio. After capturing the plane could fly into the firing of projectiles all by itself , automatically sensing heads seeking purpose.

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Suchoj SU-27IB/SU-34 ( III )

November 21st, 2013

SU11

Ranks

 

Impact prototype aircraft SU- 27IB was first presented to the public on Air MAX ` 92 A year later appeared again , this time for MAX ` 93 , demonstrating with a pair of SU -30 aircraft refueling in the air with a flying tanker IL- 78M . At that time the aircraft has changed unofficially marking on the SU -34 and was also nicknamed ” Platypus ” (called ” Platypus ” ) due to the relatively originally formed the front of the fuselage. But by the time it is put into service aircraft will be temporarily wore the previous mark. Despite inadequate funding , work on the SU- 27IB program moving forward .  Since the spring of 1997, the research center glycerol ( ” Gosudarstvenny Lotno – Ispytatielnyj Center ” ) in Achtubińsku underway to state aircraft , especially its weapon system and fire control . These tests were completed around June 2000. Work is in progress not only on weapons systems for SU – 27IB , but it is also the continuing growth of its platform . After the addition of new equipment , larger fuel supply , reinforce the structure , the plane was finally over and a half times heavier than output SU-27S/SU-27UB machines . With a full supply of weapons machine now weighs more than 45 tons , compared with about 30 tons of the SU -27. Thus, the SU- 27IB were not sufficient hitherto used , and only cosmetically improved engines AL- 31FM . This is important if the airplane is to meet the requirements for a wide range of applications. Stock Dlateg a machine , designated the design office as T – 10WS , will be different from the constructed units having new engines Lulka -Saturn AL- 41F . These are turbo engines with low string dwuprzepływości reaching maximum burn-up of about 175kN , which is about 40% more drive units used so far . AL- 41F engines give serial SU- 27IB jump in performance. This applies, in particular, acceleration and cruising speed , which ultimately is to be supersonic . Ergonomics of these units will be beneficial also to the range of the aircraft, which can exceed 4000 km . It can also be further enhanced through the use of pop-up boom refueling in the air , and that was not originally anticipated , the additional external fuel tanks , which carry most of the machines in the family SU -27 is not suitable . To keep the machine właściwośi stealth , these engines will also receive special newer style filters to lower the temperature of exhaust gases from the engines , which will also more effectively Applications up confusion missiles from hand-held portable anti-aircraft kits . In order to improve the maneuverability is also used during the moving vector , similar to those familiar with the machine SU -37 , SU- 30MKI and competitive SU- 27KUB – two-seater fighter jet impingement future for the Russian Navy . Of course, it is known that the increased weight and aerodynamic perfection impaired will make the SU- 27IB will not be as agile as the rest of the SU -27 , but the result , in comparison with its predecessor the SU- 24M and aging U.S. F- 111B engines , or even machines Tornado IDS , actually has no equal in this regard. With the acquired characteristics of the new tactical bomber not only replaces the older SU- 24M , but also , in part, may relieve heavy strategic bombers TU- 22M3 and TU – 95MS in tasks involving the fight against major facilities enemy deep in its territory. Of course, the SU- 27IB can also perform tactical and strategic impact of nuclear weapons . His fighting ability rather predispose him to perform the tasks offensive role intermediate between the bomber tactical and strategic . Thanks to these characteristics, the aircraft can therefore be used very flexibly on the battlefield . Also, do not forget about its ability to combat air targets . Strong and ultra-modern radar , combined with a rich set of weapons air-to- air make in the fight against the large and medium- haul SU- 27IB persists classic air superiority fighters . It is also worth mentioning that the plane will eventually interact with machines fighting radiolelektronicznej SU- 27MP and SU- 27R reconnaissance . Both structures are based entirely on the airframe SU- 27IB and so far are in the prototype stage . As already hinted above, in 1994, began limited production so . przedseryjnych copies of SU- 27IB in factories in Novosibirsk, belonging to the group NAPO . They differed fundamentally from the prototype T -10W . First and foremost is reinforced chassis as well as substantially larger has been characteristic ” sting ” between the nozzles. Not only enriched by new systems of warfare, but also the viewing radar a little extra back and cooperating with urządzenim B- 004 . The aircraft was also new vertical stabilizers . Significantly increased the ” hump ” for the cockpit . As I mentioned earlier , aircraft przedseryjne to June 2000 were subject to more or less intensively tested ( the whole intensity was conditioned unfortunately skimpy budget ) under different conditions. At least one of the existing copies of the SU- 27IB was even temporarily sent to Chechnya to check the actual performance of his arms and evaluate the effectiveness of co-operation with ground troops in combat . On this day, advanced aircraft development program impingement SU- 27IB actually come to an end and soon you can expect to start building more mass serial machines whose prototype was designated as T – 10WS (where ” S ” stands for ” Sieryinyj ” – or ” serial ” ) . There is some disagreement as to the proper generation of aircraft attributed to the present machine. On this day, in fact assumed that the SU- 27IB belongs to a generation 4 + fighter aircraft , although some experts are of the opinion that the machine is at the present stage of development so advanced that it can be already included the 5th generation . Anyway, it is certainly a very promising aircraft , so its possible production is by far the modern Russian air force prorytetową matter , as held by the WWS park Flight inevitably ages and for 2015-2020 the number of machines must be replaced . At the launch of the construction of the aircraft probably the most concern has established NAPO in Novosibirsk , as opposed to other air companies producing different varieties of SU -27 , and especially relatively prosperous IAPO aircraft factory in Irkutsk , which is currently out of India for the first SU- 30MKI and the PRC on the aircraft SU- 30MKK , NAPO plants have serious financial problems. Although they have already produced the first 10 SU- 27IB , but the charge for none of them has not yet been paid by the Air Force , so the contract for the construction of new aircraft for them it is extremely serious . In addition, the board of directors NAPO also hopes to conclude with other recipients of export contracts . Despite the fact that the SU- 27IB has all the chances of success in other large defense markets , it is the number of potential customers is as yet a rather sparse. The plane is mostly quite large and expensive , tho may be an alternative for countries considering the purchase of a small amount of long range heavy bombers . One of them may be the PRC , which , despite orders machines SU- 30MKK , looking for a successor to today held by them , now hopelessly obsolete machinery N -5 ( IL-28 built in China ) and the old N -6 ( TU -16 Chinese production). Chances for SU – 27IB seem to be low , as the Chinese doctrine probably strike fighter SU- 30MKK would assume the main burden of the shock action on ground targets . An additional problem for SU-27IB/SU-34 is strong competition from the SU- 27KUB , fighter built by the company in Achtubińsku AAPO as a multi-purpose fighter for the Navy and that more information should appear in a study on marine SU-27K/SU- 33 Both machines were designed for show similar , except that the SU- 27KUB developed as a fighter crew may carry similar equipment and perform similar tasks . However, SU- 27IB is ready, and the SU- 27KUB is still in the prototype stage . Despite this, however, may be a direct competitor for SU – 27IB , especially its maritime variant SU-32FN/SU-32MF export markets. It is , however, still pay attention to that in the near future there may be a sudden , sharp increase in export capacity aircraft , because by that time the aircraft as the F- 111B , SU- 24M or Sepecat completely get old Jaguar and Tornado IDS fighter-bombers and F- 15E will present much lower values ​​of battle from the Russian construction and there might be a chance for any contracts for the SU- 27IB . Therefore, it is undoubtedly an investment in the future , as the SU -34 has to be one of the four basic Russian warplanes future. If only the Russian Air Force failed to comply with a preliminary agreement to buy about 500 aircraft of this type in the 10-15 years group NAPO could even recover financial stability. In addition to the basic SU- 27IB , who soon should take a permanent designation SU -34 , it was also mentioned previously modified marine version , designated as SU- 32FN , m.in equipped with a system to detect and fight against surface targets Sea Dragon . There has also its export version , designated as SU- 32MF . This aircraft is guided more by the export , because it is unlikely that the SU- 32FN was admitted to naval aviation , and besides contract to board a fighter for the Russian Navy Strike Force SU- 27KUB , dedicated to the Russian aircraft carrier , is almost certain. A further development of the SU- 27IB is SU- 27R – a modern tactical reconnaissance aircraft , designed to displace the old , which is still in service MiG – 25RBW and fast already aging front reconnaissance aircraft SU- 24MR . The prototype passes the test if intense , and the plane soon , perhaps later this year is expected to be ready for mass production . Expected to equip it , like its predecessor the SU- 24MR , with an appropriate , tailored to the requirements of today’s high apparatus for photographic dog tags reconnaissance and electronic , both integral and underslung . As in the case of SU- 27MP , closeup future aircraft , which also has to be completed soon , too much detail is not yet known . SU- 27MP should fill the gaps that have arisen in the Russian Air Force after early withdrawal of tactical aircraft closeup SU- 24MP . Currently, it is extremely difficult to estimate future production volumes airframe SU- 27IB , but certainly the Russian Air Force will want to have them around the year 2015 to 2020 no less than they currently SU- 24M , which is about 550 pieces all versions of roughly the same proportions . If you are to believe the assurances of Gen. Anatoly Kornukowa , the current commander of the Russian Air Force , is a next-generation air equipment should go to the operating units more mass around 2008 . Moreover, if this rather optimistic variant of the situation to materialize , the aircraft is likely to remain in service in the Air Force formations ( WWS ) until the year 2050 , representing up to that time, the basis of their striking force .

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Suchoj SU-27IB/SU-34 ( II )

November 21st, 2013

SU-34photo3

Description of the structure:

SU- 27IB is a two-seat , supersonic bomber designed to destroy the front row of various ground on the far frontiers . The aircraft is built , like its progenitor – SU- 27UB , the twin-engine configuration , with redoubled wolnonośnego średniopłata vertical tail . The construction is composed of plane of modern metal alloy , wherein a ratio greater than previously used titanium alloys , tungsten , LItaliano , chromium as well as specialized composite materials . The structure of the aircraft used in many places and numerous , ultralight builders , including polyurethane foam . The hull of variable cross-section has the structure of a half shell . Fore part of the composite , radio transparent fairing , which houses the cell tracking systems . The front part is very inclined , flat , and a specially shaped , either to improve the visibility of the cockpit as well as reduce the radar echo . The bow compartment is located cockpit . Dashboard has two crew members during combat flight sitting in chairs K-36DM/2-06 class zero-zero . It was built in a ” side-by – side ” (called ” arm- to- arm ” ) . The crew are the pilot and weapons operator . As mentioned earlier , the cabin SU- 27IB is the first aircraft of this class cabin wysokofosforową , as it is very high and spacious . What’s more , the pilot can get out of the chair and completely straight. On the back there is a small compartment that houses a microwave , a container for excrement and first aid kit. Inside the cabin to the flight ceiling of 10,000 feet conditions are maintained at a height of 2400 meters above sea level , which allows the crew during the flight actually work without the use of oxygen masks . At the rear cockpit protects the high hump , and the front and sides of a thick armored glass . The whole is placed in a strong titanium frames of a 17 millimeter walls . On the right side , at the base of the influx of the wing is mounted cannon . Engine air intakes are located , as in the serial SU- 27UB , the center wing . Wings , also adapted to the structure used Photo SU -27 , have a contour band . The tail surfaces , a large vertical ballasts is doubled .The horizontal tail is a plate . The chassis is kept and as usual trójpodporowe . As the aircraft in relation to the SU- 27UB put on weight , and it also has been substantial reconstruction. Front chassis unit is doubled , has two wheels type KN- 27, size 680 × 260 Shaving carbonaceous chassis mounts have a design very zbbliżonej to those used for Migue -31. Are installed in tandem , the two wheels KT -206 with dimensions of 950 × 400 In zaskrzydłowej of the fuselage , the nacelles are separate drive unit , which in the beginning were two turbo engines Liulka Saturn AL- 31F designed in OKB im. Archippus Liulki , each of them producing a string of 85.3 kN with afterburner at 122.63 kN. This drive has , moreover , specifically for SU- 27IB , further upgrades (including the version of the AL- 31FM ) . The hull and wing integral tanks hold about 12,000 gallons of fuel . Chambers also received a complete fuel in the form of foam , effectively reducing the risk of fire in the event of damage odniesionego . Additional equipment is very good, fast-acting fire prevention systems . Aircraft equipped with elektroimpulsowy active dog tags control system . The matrix avionics aircraft SU- 27IB are : – Radiolocator B- 004 modern slot antenna scanning system using phase ( e ) . As mentioned earlier, the maximum range for detection of air by the specified device is about 250 kilometers. Radar B- 004 is also able to efficiently detect and track ground objects , and above water, channeled into the objectives missiles air -to-ground (or – air-to- water) , as well as on an ongoing basis to create an accurate radar map area , integrated navigation systems indicated , in practice the necessary to navigate the distant combat flights at very low altitude . Fire control system based on radar B- 004 is one of the most modern in the world, and said radiolocator operates in very high resolution. – Accessories and at the same time complement complex combat SU- 27IB was supposed to be , then dropped in serial machines, electro-optical system designed for enterprise Geophysics . Additional combat gear is characteristic of the modern Russian fighter jets , in the case of SU- 27IB intended for self-defense purposes nachełmowy distribution unit air – tight 3um , working with well-known of the SU- 27S laser rangefinder type KOLS -27 , located in a small transparent cover located right in front of the cockpit . The homing missile air-to- ground laser guided and televised channel system serves several UOMZ -EO . Everything is controlled by the on-board computer system, Argon ( Argon series Early systems used to control the avionics including the MiG -31) . The cabin equipment consists of seven modern liquid crystal displays MFI series . The aircraft has IFF ” us / them ” a Parol . – A closeup plane has a very rich integrated active and passive interference . In the prototype aircraft in the ” sting ” set up between the nozzles launchers placed APP -50 increased twice as compared to the SU- 27IB number of traps a thermal PPI- 26 and a dipole strips PPR -26 . SU- 27IB , in addition to built-in active electronic warfare system can also benefit from the trays Sorbiczija . They set the radar radiation source (eg, hostile ground radar station ) and emit in the direction of strong interfering signals . These modules underwent anyway , as far as the formation of a prototype machine series , continuous upgrades . The main armament firing bomber SU- 27IB is a classic cannon GSh -301 30mm caliber , placed in the same manner as the other versions of the SU -27 , ie at the edge of the flow right. Other offensive weapons , with a total weight of eight tons , is suspended for 12 nodes Suspension – 4 and 8 under the fuselage under the wings . Four external nodes of launchers tpu P -72 -1D (one under and on the wing tip ) are used to transfer defense missile air-to- air short-range R- 73 and the medium-range R- 77, and in addition, if required by the nature of the task , Sorbiczija modules . Since the plane can be used for tasks specific to hunting equipment , can transfer to other pylons very wide range of anti-aircraft missile . In addition to all of the family of missiles R-27 machine also provides for new equipment airline , including , among others 9M96 missiles from the S- 400 and included in the air-to- air long range . Weapons designed to fight the cell surface and constitutes a proper version SU- 27IB , divided into non-steered and guided . From the set of undirected Military aircraft can carry every weapon available in many proposals for its suspension . The same is the case for modern weapons guided by different methods – serial aircraft are to be ultimately designed to carry over long distances virtually all of them – so the range is very wide. In addition to guided bombs KAB – 500L , KAB – 500kr , and KAB – 1500L and KAB – 1500Kr machine can benefit from a wide range of air -to-ground missiles to 8 different projectiles with families CH -25 and CH -29 , as well as four rockets at a within CH- 59 and CH- 59M . In the near future, it is also proposed the use of newly designed air -to-ground missile type Alpha. To overcome air defense crew can use the CH- 25MP missiles and more modern CH- 58U and Kh- 31P , and the fight against maritime objectives : up to six missiles CH- 31A and CH -35, and three heavy missiles CH- 41 ” mosquito ” and the newly designed air-to- water missiles long range type Jachont . All this does not exhaust the capabilities of the airplane . because of its wide range of weaponry is constantly enriched with new types of weapons .

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Suchoj SU-27IB/SU-34

November 21st, 2013

 

Sucho

The history of the airplane:

In the mid- 80’s , due to the ever-increasing technical progress in aviation will send a number of countries, and wider access to new technologies , aviation complexes produkcjo and research around the world have taken the study of a new generation of combat aircraft . In the Soviet Union resulted , inter alia, the design of the OKB . P.Suchoja new fighter aircraft SU- 27M (SU -35 ) , which is also a kind of SU- 27, the second generation of a new , completely modernized avionics , sitting through that range of weapons , which would automatically entail a wider range of applications . A very similar way also peeled OKB im. A.Mikojana designing an airframe based on the MiG – 29A modern , lightweight multirole fighter MiG- 29M . Thus, the emergence of new technologies on the horizon in the field of military aviation and armament wymogło the future development of the concept and tactical attack aircraft . Gradually changed the doctrine of the use of tactical aircraft for the future battlefield . Military decision-makers put not only on the long range, the possibility of targeted attacks on targets that are far behind the front line and possible action to support the army , but this time they laid a lot of emphasis on greater autonomy than before action , the possibility of independent control of enemy planes , thus not involving a fighter escort that could be used for other tasks , more complex than ever before avionics and Directed energy warfare, and thus the greater the survival of the future battlefield . In the light of future requirements for tactical bomber made 90’s design team to create plants typically considered Sukhoi Assault variant SU -27. In fact, the SU -27 , having excellent performance volatile , high power silików , very long range , obtained without the need to install additional fuel tanks under the fuselage , unnecessarily increasing aerodynamic drag and reduce the amount of transferred arms , and potentially quite large capacity seemed to be the appropriate modifications of the ideal candidate for this type of fighting machine . Thus was created a separate program for the construction and development of the aircraft SU- 27IB (SU -34) . SU- 27IB (where ” IB ” means ” Istriebitiel – Bombardirowszczyk ” – literally ” Fighter- Bomber ” ) is the latest Russian air shock . Work on it was begun in the mid- 80’s. Its origin was associated , despite constantly changing military doctrine , with an urgent need for a successor tactical bomber SU- 24M ” Fencer ” . It was supposed to be a solution to fill the gap in the park Aeroplane Air Force , which was established after gradually withdrawn machines fighter- bomber SU- 17M4 ” Fitter ” and the MiG – 27M ” Flogger -G ” . So the plane was assumed to be optimized for air -to-ground action version of the SU -27 output . dog tags

The construction and development of the SU- 27IB is in many ways also associated with maritime fighter SU- 27K . In the course of the tests and research on the SU- 27K variant has also developed his two-seater , because at one time it was considered that one sequence complexity of navigation systems and fire control in the new conditions and other requirements far beyond the ability of one man .As a result of the analysis it was decided to build another prototype , designated the T-10 -39 , with a walk , side by side . To make a T-10 -39 was used a converted , serial two-seater plane SU- 27UB . This approach avoids the necessity of an appropriate redesign the entire front part of the fuselage , which is a result of the changes became more flat and less inclined than in a variation of the land . Changed the position of the front landing gear , moving them from the cabin , and the direction of his behavior on the opposite of the flight and removed the hull compensating ridges are enlarged vertical tail . In making a final decision on the introduction of the production version of the sea plane , called SU- 27K , returned at the end of the proposed single-seater variants with additional front flap control surfaces . Two-seat variant , the introduction of a number of additional amendments , was used to improve the pilot and designated as SU- 27KU ( ” Korabielnij Ucziebnyj ” – or ” school board ” ) . Thus, the initial assumption was he used to practice in the field takeoffs and landings on aircraft , maritime navigation and the use of weapons systems, air-to- water . Later, after another reconstruction , and receiving the new designation SU-32/SU-32FN was to begin service in the Russian naval aviation , driving at the same time use the formations of aircraft SU- 24M . For this option, we will return later still missing parts of this paper . Above all, however, it was decided to make it the basis for a SU- 27IB – variety of air units dedicated to WWS ( ” Wojennyjo – Wzdusznych Force ” ) , capable of destroying ground targets skuteczego in the light of the new requirements of the future battlefield . It is going to take care of this in particular. Using the run since the mid – 80’s work on the T-10 -39 started to develop its version of the parallel road . Work on the prototype of the new aircraft engineer overseeing shock . R.Martirosow . At the end of April 13, 1990 I launched , piloted by Anatoly Ivanov , the first completed prototype , pre- labeled as T -10W . He gave a start fighting machine SU- 27IB . When the construction was also used SU- 27UB airframe , which in the course of work has undergone significant changes. Changes in the airframe , as in T-10 -39 . affected mainly the front of the fuselage. Crew cabin was designed as a double , in a ” side-by – side ” (called ” arm- to- arm ” ) , to a large extent similar to the approach adopted in the antecedent – SU- 24M . The crew are the pilot and weapons operator . The plane is oriented , except for hunting tasks , including the operation of an air -to-ground . Cabin SU- 27IB is the first aircraft of this class cabin, high comfort , as it is very high and spacious . What’s more , the pilot can get out of the chair and completely straight. On the back there is a small compartment that houses a microwave , a container for excrement and first aid kit. Inside cabins are decorated 10000m altitude of 2400m above sea level conditions , which allows the crew during the flight to work without oxygen masks . Curious is the statement of General – Colonel PS Denejkina , who said that the cab SU- 27IB (T -10W ) is larger and more spacious than the cab bomber TU -160 . On the back protected by a high hump , and the front and sides of a thick armored glass . The whole was built on a titanium box with 17 millimeter walls. High emphasis on the safety of the crew in the performance of combat missions at a very low level due to the experience of using the SU -25 troopers in the war in Afghanistan, where there have been cases overshoot canopy 12.7 mm bullets wkm s DSzK . Airframe received additional front fighter flight stabilizers , and his nose was considerably flattened . The serial copies reinforced chassis ( added to the two wheels to each of the rear legs ) , adapting them to the greater weight of the airplane , and also to operate with a dirt airfields surface. Instead familiar with the SU -27 radar, the new machine SU- 27IB received very modern station with a slot antenna with electronic scanning phase B- 004 . The instrument was developed in the design office slough of St . St. Petersburg (formerly Leningrad ) , specialized for years in radar for bombers , reconnaissance aircraft and anti-submarine warfare . The maximum range of the aircraft detected by B -004 is up to 250 km . Additionally radiolocator B- 004 is able to detect and track ground targets and above water, as well as advise the air -to-ground missiles , and create accurate radar map of the area , the practice necessary for navigation on long flights at very low altitude . Wspminany fire control system, SU- 27IB is one of the most modern in the world, and radar B- 004 is in very high resolution. Currently estimated that the radar B- 004 is built by a much more advanced technology than the earlier system of RP- 31 curtains , used to Migue -31. Aircraft SU- 27IB can carry any of the currently used modern weapons air-to- air, air -to-ground and air-to- water intended for Russian tactical aircraft . In this study , or in the stage of necessary tests and tests is still a lot of innovative weapons systems . Weapons with a maximum weight of 8 tons is spread to 12 lymph suspensions ( four under the fuselage , eight under the wings ) . Aircraft equipped with the Spires distributor and dating purposes tight – 3um for missile R -73 . Additional weapon is a 30 mm cannon GSH- 301 . In contrast to previous machines of the family SU -27 , SU- 27IB variant does not have the optoelectronic detecting and tracking targets. Since the SU- 27IB is going to shock , having to fight ground targets far behind the front line , often with a strong enemy antiaircraft defense , so extensive facilities in the defenses against surface-to- air missiles is crucial for him . In addition to active prevention measures put too much emphasis on passive measures . Moreover, in order to reduce the radar echo , which in effect turned out to be smaller than the echo equipment SU- 24M , F- 111B , F – 15E , and Tornado IDS , in SU- 27IB applied much more advanced alloys and composite materials. To conduct flight at very low altitude aircraft equipped with advanced navigation systems , including satellite , working with radar , contributing to the relief scheme . December 18, 1993 a second prototype was flown SU- 27IB which at the first copy dating from Novosibirsk and one of the first copies before the serial .

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