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Since the end of September 1939, the events and the collapse of the heroic defense of Hel’s been 74 years, changed a few generations. Today, almost no one remembers the war. We live, thank God, in a place like Europe, where there is no war of 68 years. Perhaps this is why some people feeling a morbid hunger, trying to cause even local conflicts, instead of trying to unite ALL citizens of our country. The exhibition 32 days of Defense Hel in our museum so you can see. “immortal” Anthony Seroki. Dog tags – metal plate is issued individually to every soldier before sending it to fight and worn on the neck. It is used to identify the soldiers in the event of their death or heavy injury. Dog tags were first used in 1965 during the Civil War in the United States of America, and introduced them to the mass use in World War I in Europe. Polish dog tags were parted in half perforations. In the case of the death of a soldier dog tag Breaking, documenting the death of the lower half, and typically you then returning it to the family of the fallen. The upper part of the Immortelle buried along with the remains of the fallen. The Polish army was recommended to the fallen soldiers that part of the Immortelle put into the mouth – between the teeth, which would facilitate identification in case of exhumation. Immortelle Anthony Seroki a copy of the model wz.1931. It is oval plate of duralumin measuring 40 mm x 50 mm thickness of 1.5 mm. On the short, transverse chord has two 14-mm incision to help break in half. It has two holes 4 mm in diameter on the upper half (the threading cord length 750 mm) and one on the bottom. Dog tag was worn around the neck under the underwear, it could not be removed in order to avoid getting lost.
74 years ago, the Maritime Police Platoon in Hel, hit 28-year-old Corporal Anthony Seroka and here he found his war. After 32 days, the defense of Hel, when the whole of Poland was already in the hands of the Germans and their support of the Russians on September 17, when it was known that the aid can not be expected to nowhere – came the painful decision to surrender. Our hero went first to a POW camp, and when released to fight the enemy in the conspiracy. In the end, the Germans defeated, it’s the end of the war, and Anthony Seroka – a man extremely intelligent, hard-working and constantly educating – joined the Polish post-war reconstruction. He has worked in rural areas for higher and higher, independent of official positions – until suddenly was, like many others in the Stalinist period, arrested by the security forces and the long-term, falsely imprisoned. ball chains After releasing and cleansing of the allegations did not want to return to the previous environments – too painful for him memories suffered injustice and cruelty. Although formal rehabilitation of bezprawiach secret police was then dangerously remember. Took on various jobs trying to support a family. It was then, 17 years after the end of the defense of Hel Seroka sat down to write memories, like many, many other soldiers of those times. He drove to the coast searching for his colleagues from those times, rummaging in the archives and consulted with the surviving officers – including defenders. It turned out that Anthony Seroki narrative talent and at the same time a great writer care have resulted in the greatest książkę- “32 days to defend Hel”. The resulting well-written book, and although very personal, it is also plainly the apparent background of all important events in the defense of Hel.
As the author himself writes, “the main source of inspiration was his own experiences, observations and thoughts,” and because of it, and the rear świetnemu narrative realities of fighting in the town of Hel, this book is so interesting. Recall Hel defended approx. 3 000 soldiers cut off in the first days of the war from the rest of the country and defending the natural, is difficult to find a “fortress” – Hel peninsula. At the base of the peninsula, in the region of today’s Władysławowa several companies of infantry Marine Aviation Squadron and later the battalion Helium from the Border Protection Corps Helium shrouded from direct attacks by the Germans, often fighting in combat. A few batteries of artillery supported the Hel Peninsula defenders and try to shoot as much as possible the prevailing German planes in the sky dog tags uk and headland battery Laskowski – 4 powerful Polish BOFORS 152.4 mm guns kept at bay and prevented the German fleet to get Hel landings. Polish fleet was destroyed almost completely already September 3 – German bombs sank the two biggest Polish units – minelayer ORP GRYF and destroyer ORP Wicher. Many troops stationed on the peninsula throughout the cook to face the landing, which did not occur. The masses of soldiers that are under constant siege and bombardment, and aware of their helplessness, waiting, waiting … In the center of the peninsula were Helskie villages full of civilians – mostly women and children, dreaming constantly of the fighting. 32-day defense of Hel cost our military almost 80 killed and died of wounds – which in proportion to the number of troops is not so dramatically represented as such. A large number of the dead, the almost forgotten Oksywie defense. To this day, stands in Hel built on the back of the street Rural house, where before the war housed a guest of “Quo Vadis”, and which in 1939 was billeted Seroka, along with his platoon.
Is a sign of identity of an individual having permit the identification of a fallen soldier. Their origin dates back to the American Civil War, but before the First World War forced their widespread use. In acceding to the war, the armies of some formations were not equipped. Use of new technical measures, the course of events, and a huge amount of dead hampered their identification and records buried. Began to equip soldiers dog tags. Those found accidentally not necessarily belong to the dead. They were in fact often escape during the fight and quarters. However, an important trace which left a great war. Here’s how it looked in the various armies fighting for our lands:
Dog Tags (not all) in the tsarist army took the form of a disc of Avg. about 45 mm, made of an alloy of copper and have a hole to thread the strap or cord. They were worn around the neck under his uniform (at times that special pokrowcach) kick on him no. company, the abbreviated name of the regiment or other formations and a personal no. under which a soldier was listed in the records. It happened that on the reverse side of the soldiers themselves nanosili your name. 182 and Infantry Regiment belonged to the 46 th Infantry Division 25 Corps Armijnym. In 1914, the focus in the area of Hrubieszowa. In July 1915, he fought in the area Dzierzkowice and official against the legions of the First Brigade.
Soldiers had ckarmii Dog Tags (Legitimationkapsel) in the form of a rectangular opening medallion of dimensions. 50 × 34 mm. The upper part of the damage were to thread a cord which was worn. They are also placed in covers made of the canvas or leather. Was placed inside a special card containing the name, date of birth, religion, and other identifying information.
German dog tags were very diverse in terms of shape. They were made mostly of sheet zinc. They had two holes for hanging on the neck. Patchy was also the content posted on it.
Years of the 50th
First introduced after the war had a square shape dog tag, he was not breaking down as military dog tags and pre-war. The lamina made of aluminum were deposited: – The name and number of the company – The name of the regiment – The number of individual The shape of the dog tag was modeled on the Russian dog tags. This kind of Immortelle force probably until 70-80 years of last century.
Years of the 70th
The next type of dog tag dog tags is a round, perforated serving to break. Were made of stainless steel with a diameter of 35 mm and a thickness of 1 mm. They carry the inscription “Armed Forces of the Polish People’s Republic.” The only identification is a number consisting of seven digits knocked on both halves. Each of the halves was knocked out 2 holes through which the rope przewlekało maid to wear a dog tag around his neck.
Years of the 90th
The next type is the same dog tag shaped like dog tags from the communist period so that instead of “Armed Forces of the Polish People’s Republic” was the inscription “The Polish Armed Forces.” The only identification data was knocked out number on both halves of the dog tag.
The newest type of immortelle (probably introduced only at the mission in Afghanistan) is modeled on the U.S. Army dog tags. It consists of a ball chain and two stainless steel blades. The difference with the American consists in that: the chain is clearly thicker than the U.S., moreover, is only one (the chain is not easy for the second lamina); plaques themselves are somewhat more elongated shape, and have no bent as plaque Edge U.S.; Both blades are mounted on a “ogniwku” which after breaking Immortelle is soldered.
Signs of identity appeared in the armies of Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century. The German army during the War of St . developed model Immortelle ( dog tags ) in 1917 , which with some modifications in the Bundeswehr has survived until today.German dog tags from World War II . belong to objects quite often qualities found and collected by military seekers . They can be found on the battlefields , especially in areas where disarmed the ” in the wild ” small groups of soldiers who want to avoid Soviet captivity. On the ground Prudnik Dog Tags Wehrmacht , SS , police, Volkssturm and other paramilitary organizations get to the areas that were on the front lines or remained in German hands until the capitulation of the Third Reich.Presented next dog tag from Neustadt O / S ( Prudnik ) dates from the time of World War I . This is an earlier model , which provided full personal details . In this particular case it is KURT BURKHARTT born October 4, 1895 , the soldier was drafted into the two spare Battalion 62 Infantry Regiment in Prudniku in Upper Silesia and stored in the registry under the number 8 seaterInterpretation shortcut JB or IR ( Infanterie Regiment = Infantry Regiment ) is a trivial problem for explorers . According to experts on the subject of Alexander Rostock JR abbreviation is often mistakenly read as Jäger Regiment which regiment of riflemen ( jegrów ) . On the German dog tags Jäger name was usually shortened as JAG . or Jg. The surest way to verify the name of the unit is to check the number in the studies of the German army.In most cases the identity of the German characters appear the names and numbers of school units and spares, in which a soldier held training before being sent to the front. By law the number of the backup ( the school ) should be identical to the number of combat units . However, often former soldiers spare units were sent to other units. Especially then , when the situation at the front was critical. To fight as infantry pchano everything available: convalescents , recruits , cadets NCO schools , especially soldiers in other specialties .The author of this note is not entirely sure if other data on the dog tag means the place of residence of soldier in Dresden Street. Stars of the Leipzig No. 54 ( Leipzigersterne ? ) , Especially if properly translated the name. If someone correct me , I’ll be grateful to him .Dog tag Burkhartta Kurt was found along with others, and half of the third in the training ground and a large training camp (as well as a camp for prisoners of war, two world wars ) in Łambinowice ( Lamsdorf ) . All three dog tags related Prudnik and 62 Infantry Regiment . As has been found in this place, probably formed part of an archival deposit graph . A number of returning from the bondage of the former German prisoners of war passed here in the years 1919-1922 in quarantine after repatriation.Signs of identity in the case of finding them , along with the remains of soldiers usually are only able to identify the dead . They also allow you to notify the family of missing without a trace . In this particular case the dog tags from Prudnik were found “in bulk ” . So there was no sense of notification of relevant institutions involved in the identification and burial of the remains of German soldiers ( the Foundation “Remembrance ,” or Deutsche Dienststelle ) .Michael from Gogolin thank you for sharing associated with the history of the garrison in Prudniku finds. Another dog tag with Prudnik was exhibited recently at an online auction eBay.I guess we will never know what was the fate of the soldier Burkhartta . Presumably, I survived the war. At the end of World War II was about 50 years. According to the decree of Hitler of 25 July 1944 will be available for service in one of the 4 categories of personal militia ( Volkssturm ) . Perhaps you live somewhere descendants of his family. Life and history are full of secrets. Only a small part inherent in found objects manages to unravel the mysteries of the end. Maybe this time to the authors ‘ archive explorer ” smiles happiness .
Seventh October 1944 William H. Flannery , an American bomber pilot had to drop bombs on the factory gasoline in the Police.Approximately 13 hours the machine has been hit by the Germans. The bomber crashed while later around Lagenbergu , today the Holy . – History of the bomber was interested in January – says Dariusz Szaliński , president of the Association of Police ” Treasure” , which brings together enthusiasts of the history of this region. – In the vicinity of dances found in fact immortal American soldier . We contacted the association of bomber crews , which explains the fate of U.S. soldiers missing in action during the last world war activities . It turned out that Lieutenant John G. Schloendon a B17 bombardier said . His name is on the plate missing on the American military cemetery in the Netherlands.Americans today explain the fate of his soldiers , do not save it money and time. Last Thursday, the Police came to the members of this association .- John A. Gray and Cory D. Damm told about the history of the aircraft , the fate of the crew, about what they were able to determine – continues Jacek Porzeziński the Association Treasury . – So far, they have failed to explain the fate of , and determine the possible burial place about 30 U.S. soldiers missing in actions of war in Western Pomerania .With a 10 – person crew still missing are recognized : pilot William H. Flannery , co-pilot Jewel W. Lowrey , Duane E. Stowits radio operator , flight engineer Lloyd K. Lagasse and of John G. Schloendon , whose dog tag found in the surrounding gum .Navigators Paul Moll dog tags , Morris Arnovitz , Raymond G. Moon, waist gunner George Les Petty and the tail gunner Walter C. Strosser were captured .- The Americans were able to determine , based on the testimony of soldiers bombers and other documents preserved in the archives of the German , that one of the soldiers bomber jumped out of a machine that previously had been hit – adds Dariusz Szaliński . – He did not open his parachute . Whether or jumped , or was injured at the moment, or kicked him catapult , is not known . He could die falling to the ground, he might as well be dead fatally hit in a bomber . These are only hypotheses .Americans came to the Police to determine the burial place of the bombardier Schloendona . Visitors from the United States have one track . Located the tomb , where perhaps a soldier buried their army.
August 15, 1944 , the U.S. First Airborne Division Parachute Task Force ( FABTF ) was dropped west of Nice, in southern France. Then there was a large-scale landing of Allied troops on the beaches between Cannes and Toulon .A few days after landing FABTF given the task moves toward the Italian border , and thus the liberation of parts of Nice. German units defending the area was 148 Replacement Division , made up mostly of troops from Silesia. The German troops were not strong enough to stop the Allied advance towards the border with Italy. Their task was only to delay the march of the Allies and to give time to prepare a better defense in the high mountains at the border. From 20 August to early September , FABTF go towards the border. German troops were occupied defensive lines only on particularly favorable positions , and after a few hours of fighting defense retreated .One such defensive skirmishes took place near Villeneuve -Loubet , a small town in which I live . The famous unit called the First Special Service Force ( FSSF ) , an elite team made up of Americans and Canadians come close to Villeneuve at night on August 24 . Germany prepared an ambush by the roadside , wounding several soldiers. It stopped the attack FSSF that day. Resumed until the next night. On the morning of August 26 Villeneuve was surrounded and attacked simultaneously from the front and from behind. Several German soldiers have been killed , but dozens of surrender. One group , which consists of about 30 soldiers led by a Pole , surrendered to the French teenager , who told them that it makes no sense to fight anymore .In the afternoon, Aug. 26 Germany attempted to counterattack on Villeneuve , but their allied soldiers carefully waited in hiding and were able to easily reject the enemy , killed in battle a few wehrmachtowców further . A Frenchwoman , a witness fights, saw Polish soldier running toward the Allied soldiers with a white flag , which was shot in the back by a German officer . Similar incident described in the report Americans and Canadians . Many Poles wanted to give up, but the officers were using all available means , I would stop them .When I asked older people living in Villeneuve about this event , I was very surprised by the findings : ” Why do you want to know? Are you looking for the Germans ? ‘. I discovered that all those German soldiers died Aug. 26, 1944 , they were buried in a mass grave in the woods right next to Villeneuve ! Body initially left lying on the ground, but after a few days had something to do with them as it began to decompose . Local residents dug a big grave and buried in the body. For some unknown reason no one has ever tried to find the grave after the war. Since I am a medical student and have always been fascinated by forensic science , I decided to find the grave .The most difficult task was to accurately determine its position when it really was not sure if he really exists. But I made it to all older people and everyone was asking the question what he knows about the tomb . Everyone said something different , so I had to choose the most reliable relationships . Some repeating things they had heard from others, but I needed to eyewitnesses .An older man , more than 90 -year-old , he worked in the field when the grave was dug in 1944 told me that the bottom was between fairly old tree , a small river . I tried to watch the ground, explore the metal detector , view aerial photos , but nothing resulted because the area looked normal, and aerial photos also did not ask anything . Research metal detector was difficult, because the whole area is full of metal scrap inherent in the ground. So I started to dig a meter deep pits in random places after dark. After digging ten of the pits I finally found a human bone. I was very pleased and surprised but also shocked because I did not know what to do now . I did not expect that I really find German soldiers buried in a mass grave in the middle of the Côte d’Azur . I was not sure what to do now .Finally, after a long series of thoughts and discussions , organized jointly with the exhumation Volksbundem ( German People’s Association for Care of War Graves ) . They organized everything so that was an official character , but I was allowed , and the archeologist and kilkorgu medycyjny students participate in the work . Dug grave 18 and 19 October 2006 In total we found 14 bodies in it lying at different random positions. They were just thrown into the pit and covered with soil . Some bodies were lying on his back , the other on your stomach . Many items were next to corpses – were helmets, ammunition belts, coins , combs and buttons . An interesting fact was that only one body lacked shoes , and all were deprived of bayonets (even though the bars were the vagina ) . French civilians took everything that could be useful . The tomb was also a second , loose pair of shoes that have been removed from the legs of the fallen soldier , and then thrown back into the grave. I thought it rather odd , until I looked exactly these shoes . They were cut into fragments . Apparently, a Frenchman wanted to take for himself footwear , but noted that it is destroyed , so he resigned from his plan and threw them back to the grave.A few are in grave helmets were damaged by shrapnel or bullets , allowing us to determine the direct cause of death. One of the helmets was particularly frightening because a large piece of the projectile fragmentation went exactly by that helmet , dog tags the way blew the head of the owner.Other discoveries were poignant ring on the finger of one of the killed and several immortals . One was particularly surprising. He was found stuck in the bridge of soldiers , with a bullet hole in the middle of the plaque.In total, we found seven immortals , which we sent to Berlin. It turned out that one of them is too damaged to read the inscription , while the second could not even decipher . Germany used the immortals with the code numbers instead of the names of the soldiers , so that when a document containing the assignment of a number konkretnymu soldier has been lost , it is not possible to identify the man. I was very disappointed that the dead soldier can not be identified by such technical detail .Employees WASt in Berlin were able to determine the personalities of five soldiers based on their dog tags , and searching archival documents also found the names of two more soldiers declared missing in the area of Villeneuve . It was, therefore , they had to wear them soldiers , whose dog tags could not be read. In 2007, all the bodies were transferred to the German ball chainsWar Cemetery in Berneuil in France.As mentioned earlier, 148 Replacement Division was composed mainly Silesians. Most of them were either very young or very old as soldiers . It turned out that among the seven identified four soldiers came from Upper Silesia , two from the Czech Republic , and the only one from the land belonging to Germany today – from a small town lying at the current Polish border.After sending a series of letters , with the help of Volksbund , made contact with members of the families of two soldiers from Silesia and one from the Czech Republic . They were all very glad , to learn the fate of missing loved ones . The son of one of the soldiers came to Villeneuve- Loubet in 2008 to meet with me and see previous burial place of his father. Remained in place for a few days, and one evening , just before leaving , he told me something that made my search suddenly seemed to make sense to me : ” Look here … I lost my father at this point , but I gained a friend … ” .
About a hundred soldiers of immortals and thousands of personal items belonging to the former German prisoners of Stalag 1B Hohenstein War II , discovered during archaeological work in the construction of the S -7 near Olsztynek .When going to the end of October archaeological research found nearly 100 halves of immortals camp belonging to the Polish prisoners of war , Belgian and French , hundreds of soldiers boots , canteens , pipes , shaving gear and other personal effects .Out of the earth from the construction of the expressway also excavated a large number of glass dishes – beer bottles and wine bottles of perfume , plates and vials of drugs and various types of vascular medicine. Most of the objects found at the site of the now defunct pond, which at times served as a makeshift camp garbage .According to Hubert Augustyniak , who supervised the excavations near , studied by archaeologists area was probably separated from the main camp area sanitary disinfection . dog tags embossed We discovered the foundations of the building, probably a former bath or hydrophone . Within the designated area of research we were able to find traces of the fence , defining the boundaries of the camp – said Augustyniak .In the coming weeks, which prepares the creation of the material finds. Items that have historical value are preserved . In the future probably will go to a local museum dedicated to the history of Stalag , which intends to create a commune .On the traces of the camp encountered in April in the rabbit during the construction of the S -7 dog tags . Until the completion of archaeological research investment in this section was discontinued . Putting to use the route planned for summer 2012Stalag 1B Hohenstein was one of the largest POW camps in the former East Prussia. On the surface of 35 hectares were over 120 barracks. During the entire war in the camp of nearly 400 thousand . privates and non-commissioned officers . About 55 thousand . prisoners died of typhus epidemics , malnutrition and exhaustion hard work.
Dog tags worn since the war in 1870. Were carried out in various forms, sizes and materials – there was no uniform pattern. Most were small, brass, round or oval, the top had two holes on the carrier string. For immortals quickly stuck the nickname “Hundemarke” (Pl. ticket for the dog). There were also versions for officers as jewelery with precious materials. Was commanded at least that on the dog tags were name and unit: engraved, etched, stamped or hammered. In 1915 was introduced the standard model Immortelle – galvanized plate with dimensions of 5 x 7 inches, above the name of the holder, a division of replacement / training and unit number less than half and the number of branch units – when changing stamped new and old strikeout.
In the end of year 1917 came the newest and latest in a model similar to the old in terms of size and material, but now had three long gap in the middle (where the target fracture) and below another hole. This formula has been used by the Reichswehr and the Wehrmacht. Dog tags were worn on a string – his performance was not defined by law, but generally twisted rope used in the respective national colors.
This is the last action of the British commando Polish soldiers from the 1st Armored Division.In November 1944 the 1st Armoured Division under the command of General Stanislaw Poppies was directed to master the Dutch port of Moerdijk at the mouth of the River Meuse. Polish pancerniacy had to fire their tanks strike transition in concrete dams Terraced few fit to travel the road dug causeways and running on the flat, pre-cut channels in which Germany is almost completely flooded with water. They joked that instead of Sherman and Cromwell should be equipped with submarines to overcome the extreme disadvantage of the armored area. dog tags
November 9, 1944 , after bloody battles Poles won fortified przedmościa Moerdijk, but unfortunately the Germans managed to blow up within that area of the two bridges . At that time, Polish forces reached the Meuse Division in the area to the east of Moerdijk ( separate battalion Tatra ) and in the area of Geertruidenberg – Dongen ( grouping of 10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade ) . Boje of Moerdijk exhausted forces division , which was for him a very dynamic and fruitful armored raid by France and Belgium . At Moerdijkiem Poles lost 84 officers and 1,325 privates.From November 10th division focused on controlling the Meuse, taking supplements and training. Staying in the UK I Corps ( Canadian 1st Army ) , dozorowała 25 -kilometer stretch of the river – from the west ” neighboured ” with the Canadian Armoured Car Regiment 18 , and to the east of the Canadian 4th Armoured Division . It quickly became clear , however, that not count here for a quiet ” winter quarters ” .December 16 , the German counteroffensive launched a “last resort ” in the Ardennes . Using unfavorable for aviation aura armored armies of Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt struck in the Malmedy and Bastogne, to separate the American and British forces . Surprised Americans initially suffered heavy losses , but their defense quickly solidified and the German attack began to lose momentum . After 1 January 1945 the weather improved enough that the game returned to Allied aircraft and the Germans could only dream of a repeat of the Battle of Dunkirk in 1940.
Because of the German counteroffensive in the Ardennes was to regroup the troops stationed in the region of the 1st Armored Division . The commander of the British I Corps moved from the front four Canadian Armoured Division to his odwodu , and its section on Dec. 20 took the Poles , strengthened doborowym UK 47 Royal Marine Commando and 1315 Company of the Royal Air Force Regiment .At that time, as a result of enemy activity was carried out a few rearrangements and finally at the end of December, Mozy surveillance section is divided into three sectors: western cast 47 Royal Marine Commando , middle grouping of three fixed- Polish Brigade and Squadron 10 Rifle Regiment , East 1 Artillery Regiment piercing and one Dywizjonowi Przeciwlotniczemu of Polish armored division . Then began a guerrilla war . On the one hand patrols shooters General Kurt Student’s paratroopers were trying to infiltrate from the north bank of the Meuse , on the other scorers Polish and British commandos hunted the notorious saboteurs with 150 Armoured Brigade SS Otto Skorzeny . It was a very arduous service , which struggled nerves and exhausted forces soldiers. Most patrols went on to recognize the position of the enemy. Soldiers selected for such shares have exactly all pockets are empty , so it remained the only dog tags around their necks . Took off their shoes and substituted for them gymnastic slippers . Walking on the Meuse shafts were particularly dangerous because it was difficult to surprise the enemy such as the German gunners parachute , known as Green Devils . Well known for fighting subversive and often allied patrols ended in failure and losses in their own ranks .
Most Active Military 1st Armored Division , section Meuse surveillance accounted for as of January 1945. The most difficult area for these activities was the backwater of the Old Meuse, in the area of the island Kapelsche Veer ( between Breda and Tilburg ) , which in November 1944 were unable to master the Canadian pancerniacy . The German gunners parachute przedmościa organized here on the shaft of the river , pulling a small outpost south of duds Old Meuse . Hence, organized trips to Polish institutions spread in the neighboring towns. In addition, this depressed area , flat as a table and almost completely covered in ice , was under fire from enemy mortars and guns . Division Headquarters therefore decided to eliminate the annoying ” spike ” in episode surveillance .On the night of December 31, 1944 January 1, 1945 until the attack on both przedmościa went 9 Rifles Battalion (no two companies ) supported by three regiments of artillery. Poles came under crossfire and their attack failed – 13 soldiers were killed and 37 were wounded . January 5 action performed by which they wanted to provoke the Germans to betray their positions of artillery and machine-gun nests . Under the cover of smoke patrols Riflemen przeprawiły to the north shore of the Meuse , but failed to detect only a few positions machine-guns . On the night of 6 to 7 January , once again the German przedmościa the Kapelsche Veer moved nine Battalion Rifle shooters , but this time they did not give the board the Green Devils general student .
After many failures, it was decided that the attack on the German bunkers in the area Kapelsche Veer will go ” najwaleczniejsi of valor ” in the British Army – Commandos 47 Royal Marine Commando. Island getaway planned for the night of the 13th to 14th January 1945 , and the preparation for the British crossing was supposed to Poland 10 Band Engineers of the 1st Armored Division .January 13 , even during the day , the Polish sappers under the cover of fog they marked the transition to the channel that separates the island from the ” Allied ” coast and prepared a portion of the bridge kapok , which at night was to be moved into place and there renewed. When it becomes dark group of commandos and sappers moved in the direction of the channel , carrying boats landing . At the same time , also came from the footbridge kapok branch on his shoulders. When the boats were on the water, we found that a strong wind , wave and backward sheet of ice just below the surface very difficult to maneuver . Increased stocking rowers and boats Sapper proved insurmountable to the other shore , dragging the rope at the same time that facilitated the crossing . At the same time put walkway .Instantly aligns to the train commandos , which seemed to go after the ” bridge ” is safer than handling in wet and torn wind boats. Equally quickly disappointed … The first ” najwaleczniejszy of valor ” stood precariously on chyboczącym in all directions kapok , which under his weight almost completely submerged in water , a soldier without a word turned around. When I saw the other commando colleague opposite , did not even try to enter the walkway . The third walked boldly forward, and when he beat half the distance , stood helplessly . To keep his spirits , followed by one of the Polish sappers who carefully past him and British commandos proved that you can go on the catwalk . Then they went to meet the elite Green Devils . As Lieutenant Joseph Jarosz says : ” He started to move on the catwalk . Watching seen how people reacted variously to see her ! Some crossed themselves , putting his foot on the kapok , often hear the curse , and there were and are many who feel more confident , walking on hands and feet . ” Boats , therefore, quickly returned to favor commandos ( it was planned that some of them will flow from the banks of the river and hit the Germans from the rear ) .On the other side of the channel 47 soldiers of the famous Royal Marine Commando regained vigor and attacked the shooters parachute commandos as befits – with daggers in their teeth and grenades in their hands . Parachute in anything they did not yield to – well fortified bunkers in their decimated the British murderous machine-gun fire . As Polish shooters a few days earlier , at dawn they returned ” to their ” on their own , only a few commandos . Wounded were transported in boats Polish sappers who have left the shores of the island at the end.This was the final action of the British commandos together with the Poles – 47 Royal Marine Commando was excluded from the composition of the 1st Armored Division . The German gunners parachute – originally trained for the tasks offensive – once again proved to be the masters of defense.January 16, 1945 the Allied command to Kapelsche Veer threw two squadrons of Spitfires , but the Air Force failed to fire machine guns to break the German defenses . Scorers parachute General Student maintained their positions on Kapelsche Veer until January 26 . Then they attacked the Canadian infantrymen of 4 Armoured Division (which has since returned to the area ) . Canadians with the support of artillery corps and two platoons of tanks floating Buffallo for the price of high losses captured German bunkers buried in the Meuse bulwark . The defending here reinforced rifle company parachuting was to January 31 stamped right to his feet.” Winter Lair ” on the Meuse were the 1st Armoured Division too quiet . Arduous service patrol , in which the soldiers repeatedly cursed ” damned Rundstedt ” numerous rearrangements and clashes claimed 180 killed, 441 wounded and 30 missing persons. With spring coming , however, a new victory over the agonizing ” one thousand ” Third Reich . Another rally Polish armored division led to a ” nursery herds wolf ” – Navy base in Wilhelmshaven .