Archive for the ‘History’ Category

The great conflicts of seventeenth-century Europe…

August 6th, 2016

Republic in the seventeenth century passed way from the superpower to “colossus with feet of clay.” After a century before, in which Jagiellonowie developed imperial position of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth there was a period in which an unwieldy democracy of the nobility led to the collapse of the powerful territorially and economically state. Victory military did not protect Republic of the economic crisis, internal and loss of meaning in the political arena. However, most of the seventeenth century Poland and Lithuania counted in international competitions and voiced their opinion in the major territorial disputes in Europe, or as an ally of one of the parties, or as a directly interested. The Republic occupied in the seventeenth century, vast territory, at the height of it was even 1 million km2. In the east, neighboured with the Russian tsardom, in the south of the tributary to the Sultan, to the west with the countries ruled by the Habsburgs, the Reich, from the Brandenburg Hohenzollern and from the north, the sea-with Sweden. This gives an idea of the extent of the Republic, as well as the political situation at the time when it is in close proximity to powerful states or aspiring to power whose territorial appetites are huge.In the seventeenth century, I distinguish three great European conflicts (1), involving at the same time a greater number of countries and influence on contemporary arrangement of forces: this is the Thirty Years’ War, the Swedish invasion and the war with Turkey. The Thirty Years War passed as it were beside us, we played as a permanent ally of the emperor, but we did not have in this respect more profit or suffered a major loss. (5) During the Swedish invasion were a party directly involved, which, although it was victorious emerged from this conflict very devastated. Battles with Turkey radically changed the balance of power in Central and Eastern Europe (1) Europe, but we have brought benefits only prestigious.

The Thirty Years War (1618- 1648) fell on the reign of Sigismund III Vasa (1587- 1732) and his son Ladislaus IV (1632- 1648). Zygmunt III Waza sided with the Catholic camp prohabsburskiego and for religious and political reasons. In 1619 years the emperor gave assistance in repelling the Transylvanians, led by Gabor Bethlen from Vienna. This operation is called the first siege of Vienna. Because Transylvania was a vassal of the Sultan of war declared Gábor Bethlenowi meant declaring war on the Ottoman Empire (2). Clash occurred Cecora in 1620, where the Polish army was defeated. Retaliation came a year later in 1621 Chocim. Turkish troops were repelled hand made peace in Khotyn. Austria also supported the Crown in its campaigns, eg. Against Sweden. In 1629 Austrian army dog tags donated to the Polish army at the Battle of Trzciana, the victorious allies. In the same year the Republic and Sweden made peace in Altmark, which stopped at the Swedish Livonia and allow it to charge duties of Gdansk trade. This room has been established through the mediation of France, which is in a state of war with the Habsburgs and in need of help Swedish. Crown, not quite that exhausted the war was losing huge revenue source. Zygmunt III tried during the Thirty Years’ War once again to support an ally by sending his fleet, which, however, was destroyed in Wismar in 1632. The largest and most bloody war has not touched a Polish state (1). Clash with Sweden was a conflict stretching long and fight with her were the result of alliances concluded during the Thirty Years War. Sequel war Polish Swedish is a Swedish invasion, taking place in the period 1655- 1660. The Lord of Sweden, Carl Gustaf (1655- 1660) and the Republic of King Jan Kazimierz (1648- 1668) were in this dispute constant antagonists, allies maneuvering between them. Karl Gustav headed for the attack in 1655 and a few months took a huge expanse of the Republic in this Kamieniec Podolski. The mobilization of the nobility and the King (confederations in Tyszowicach (2) and Łańcut, royal weddings in Lviv) caused that Sweden has decided to share areas zdobycznymi for help. Allies found in the Prince of Transylvania, Jerzy Rakoczym, the self-proclaimed king of Ukraine, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the Lithuanians Janusz Radziwill, and elektorze Brandenburg Frederick Hohenzollernie. Współsprzymierzeńcy made a deal in 1656 in Radnot (3), where a pre-determined division of the Polish lands. There has been a massive attack repulsed by the brilliant commander Stefan Czarnecki and Jerzy Lubomirski. In view of the changing situation Brandenburg resigned from the alliance with Sweden in exchange for putting her in possession of Prussia (treaties welawsko- Bydgoszcz in 1657) and an alliance with Denmark and Reich allowed the Republic to beat Sweden. In 1660, it established the conditions for lasting peace: John Casimir finally relinquished claim to the Swedish throne, Sweden retained most of Livonia apart from the southern Polish skrawka- Livonia. During the Swedish invasion Republic has been devastated, the economy was ruined, and politically the most ważkim event was a renunciation of sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia and Brandenburg strengthen the neighbor what had serious consequences in the future. With the tragic situation of the Republic benefited Russia. For seven years plagued Polish state in 1667 to conclude extremely beneficial for everyone in the room Andrusovo (4), under which the Republic of losing the Ukraine, which confirmed its weakness. The eighties were the Polish and Lithuanian period of rebuilding good fame of his weapons. In the war with Turkey has shown the strength and efficiency of their troops. ball chains After initially unused victories (Chocim 1673), which provided only temporary ceasefire Polish army could again prove their strength. Under the terms of an alliance with the Habsburgs King Republic, Jan III Sobieski (1673- 1696) in the face of threats of Austria began in 1683 with the help of oblężonemu of Vienna. This expedition, called the second relief of Vienna, ended the undisputed Victoria Sobieski. Hussars Poland crushed the Turkish troops. Christian countries deciding to war with Turkey concluded a year later an alliance called the League of the Sacred in the squad, which consisted of the papacy, Venice, Russia and of course Republic. They eventually defeated and forced the Ottoman Empire to sign the peace only in 1699, therefore already in the time of Augustus II the Strong (1696- 1733). Under the peace in Karłowice Republic regained Kamieniec Podolski, who was of course important for us to town but nevertheless in itself was a very small compensation for 16 years of continuous war. Republic in the seventeenth century took an active part in political life not only his part of Europe, but the entire continent. She managed to avoid the big losses that could touch her because of participation in the Thirty Years War (5) Her commitment has not been rewarded, however. Swedish Deluge though was a military victory meant economic disaster. The share of the mighty forces of the five states on the territory of one country must end in a big crisis (2). War with Turkey ended in an important peace in Karlowitz, ending 255 years of Polish-Turkish wars and providing end the power of the Ottoman Empire for the next 100 years. The victory over the Turks was the last chord forces of the Republic. The end of the seventeenth century opened Saxon times being in the memory of posterity sign of losing the position and strength of the Polish state.

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The Thirty Years War…

August 6th, 2016

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The situation of the Reich at the beginning of the seventeenth century and the cause of the outbreak of the 30-year war- The division of the Reich approx. 300 principalities and different cities subordinated to the emperor of the Habsburg dynasty- Desire of France to weaken the countries ruled by the Habsburgs- Inhibiting the spread of the Reformation and the gradual displacement of Protestants by the Catholic princes- Establishment of the Union of the Protestant Elector Palatine of the Rhine Frederick IV at the head (1608)- Conflict of succession to the ducal throne in the Rhine – the establishment of the Catholic League with Prince Maximilian of Bavaria (1609)- Hussitism revival and development of Lutheranism in the Czech Republic – guarantees religious tolerance in the so-called. leaves majestic Emperor Rudolf II (1609)- Withdrawal of Emperor Matthias of obligations to the Czechs, the decision to transfer the Czech koruna and the Hungarian Ferdinand of Habsburg – complaint exit the Czech Protestant nobility to the Emperor (1618)- A ban on political gatherings and exit the Czech nobility – the second Prague defenestration antyhabsburskiego and the outbreak of the uprising in the Czech Republic (1618)- Antyhabsburskie uprising in Hungary, the prince of Transylvania Gabor Bethlen (1619)- Dethronement of Ferdinand II, and a choice of king of Bohemia, Elector Palatine Frederick V Wittelsbach.

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The outbreak of war 30 years – the period of Czech-Palatinate (1618-1624)- The attack on the Czechs and Hungarians Moravia to Vienna- Defeat of Czech troops in the Battle of White Mountain (1620) – the bloody repression of the insurgents; confiscation of property; escape from the country participants rebellion- Room Habsburgs with Hungary in Nikolsburg (1622)- Addressing the Palatinate by the imperial army and deprivation of Frederick V, Elector title (1622) The period of the Danish 30-year war (1624-1629)- The breakdown of Danish and Dutch troops at the Battle of Dessau (1626) and the defeat of the troops of Christian IV in challenging the imperial army of Albrecht von Wallenstein at Lutter am Barenberge- The failure of Christian IV in Wolgast and the signing of peace in Lübeck (1629)- Restitution edict of the Emperor (1629) – warrant the return of church lands secularized after 1552.

The period of Swedish 30-year war (1630-1635)- Conflict within the Catholic League in connection with the increase in the strength of the Emperor (fear of absolute rule)- Accession of King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden for war – the seizure of Pomerania- Acquisition and destruction dog tags of Magdeburg by the army of the Catholic League with Johan von Tilly (1631) – the occurrence of neutral against the Emperor- The breakdown of the imperial army by the army of Saxon-Swedish under Breitenfelden (1631)- Swedish victory and the death of Gustav II Adolf Lützen (1632) and the rout of the Swedes at Nordlingen (1634)- Room in Prague (1635)

The extension of the war outside the territory of the Reich – French period (1635-1648)- France declares war on Spain – fighting in Spain, the Netherlands and Germany- The victory of France, after a series of defeats, the army imperial and Bavarian in Rheinfelden (1638)- The weakening of the imperial army – trying to make peace with Sweden by the Emperor Ferdinand III- The breakdown of the Spaniards by the French army at Rocroi (1643) – Franco-Spanish War to 1659- French victory over Bavaria, the defeat of the imperial army in a challenge with the Swedes at the Jankov – start peace negotiations- Another victory of French troops – at Nordlingen (1645) and Lens (1648).

Peace of Westphalia (1648)- Territorial acquisitions – Alsace and the bishopric of Metz and Verdun to France; Vorpommern for Sweden; Lausitz for Saxony; Pomerania and Kolberg for Brandenburg- Recognition of the independence of Switzerland and the Netherlands- Restoration of the Peace of Augsburg 1555- Return on assets Protestants received by the emperor in 1624- German principalities granting the right to conduct a separate foreign policy (the actual collapse of the Reich)

Effects of 30-year war- Increase the role of France in Europe and an end to the domination of the Habsburgs- Loss of life (eg Pomerania, Mecklenburg 90% of the population)- Destruction war – reconstruction of economic and demographic next 100 years- Strengthening of the Habsburgs in the Czech Republic and Hungary- The end of the religious wars in Germany.

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Peace of Westphalia…

August 6th, 2016

The multilateral system, which ended the Thirty Years’ War was one of the most important international treaties in the history of modern Europe.

Peace of Westphalia between the Holy Roman Empire and France and her allies in Münster and between the Habsburgs and Sweden in Osnabrück concluded October 24, 1648.- Adopted the provisions turned out to be unusual – emphasized prof. Henryk Wisner in the program “Chronicle of two millennia.” – It was a reflection of the emerging new political consciousness of Europe’s borders, which included the countries participating in the negotiations. First of all, it determines the placement of the text of the provisions of a transnational nature.What was the significance of the Thirty Years War and the Peace of Westphalia? Listen to the broadcast with the participation of prof. Henry Wisner.With the Czech Republic the whole of Europe- Thirty Years’ War began in 1618 as a creation of the Czechs defending their rights, especially freedom of challenges before King Ferdinand II Habsburg – said historian prof. Henryk Wisner. – After their defeat in the fight against Habsburg stood Denmark, then Sweden, Denmark and allies.Although the conflict was the ground of a religious nature that has evolved over the years. Another European powers joining the war sought through everything to weaken the power of the Habsburgs.Europe dividedEurope was divided into two camps: in one state were under the influence of Ferdinand II of Habsburg, moreover, the Papacy, Spain and part of the Reich, in the second: Denmark, France, Sweden, the Netherlands, and also part of the German principalities.- The reason for the internationalization of the conflict are religious antagonisms, centralist tendencies of the Habsburgs in Germany and the Habsburg-French rivalry – emphasized historian prof. Rafal Habielski in the broadcast Agnieszka Stecki 2001. – Not without significance was also the ambitions of Sweden, who wants to strengthen in the south of the Baltic Sea and subjected to its exclusive control.The Thirty Years War is divided into four periods, during which changed configurations vying for influence in Europe. How rolled lasted thirty years conflict? Listen to the broadcast with the participation of prof. Raphael Habielskiego.End of the warThe Thirty Years War brought many changes in Europe at the time. The Habsburgs came out of the war weakened. – They had to come to terms with the territorial losses of Germany for France and Sweden – explained prof. Habielski. – Sweden under the peace gained custody of Protestants in Lower Austria and Silesia.Much havoc has affected the Czech Republic, whose population has halved. For most of the lands of the Habsburg reigned economic stagnation. France has become a European power.

 

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