The Thirty Years War…

August 6th, 2016
by andrzej

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The situation of the Reich at the beginning of the seventeenth century and the cause of the outbreak of the 30-year war- The division of the Reich approx. 300 principalities and different cities subordinated to the emperor of the Habsburg dynasty- Desire of France to weaken the countries ruled by the Habsburgs- Inhibiting the spread of the Reformation and the gradual displacement of Protestants by the Catholic princes- Establishment of the Union of the Protestant Elector Palatine of the Rhine Frederick IV at the head (1608)- Conflict of succession to the ducal throne in the Rhine – the establishment of the Catholic League with Prince Maximilian of Bavaria (1609)- Hussitism revival and development of Lutheranism in the Czech Republic – guarantees religious tolerance in the so-called. leaves majestic Emperor Rudolf II (1609)- Withdrawal of Emperor Matthias of obligations to the Czechs, the decision to transfer the Czech koruna and the Hungarian Ferdinand of Habsburg – complaint exit the Czech Protestant nobility to the Emperor (1618)- A ban on political gatherings and exit the Czech nobility – the second Prague defenestration antyhabsburskiego and the outbreak of the uprising in the Czech Republic (1618)- Antyhabsburskie uprising in Hungary, the prince of Transylvania Gabor Bethlen (1619)- Dethronement of Ferdinand II, and a choice of king of Bohemia, Elector Palatine Frederick V Wittelsbach.

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The outbreak of war 30 years – the period of Czech-Palatinate (1618-1624)- The attack on the Czechs and Hungarians Moravia to Vienna- Defeat of Czech troops in the Battle of White Mountain (1620) – the bloody repression of the insurgents; confiscation of property; escape from the country participants rebellion- Room Habsburgs with Hungary in Nikolsburg (1622)- Addressing the Palatinate by the imperial army and deprivation of Frederick V, Elector title (1622) The period of the Danish 30-year war (1624-1629)- The breakdown of Danish and Dutch troops at the Battle of Dessau (1626) and the defeat of the troops of Christian IV in challenging the imperial army of Albrecht von Wallenstein at Lutter am Barenberge- The failure of Christian IV in Wolgast and the signing of peace in Lübeck (1629)- Restitution edict of the Emperor (1629) – warrant the return of church lands secularized after 1552.

The period of Swedish 30-year war (1630-1635)- Conflict within the Catholic League in connection with the increase in the strength of the Emperor (fear of absolute rule)- Accession of King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden for war – the seizure of Pomerania- Acquisition and destruction dog tags of Magdeburg by the army of the Catholic League with Johan von Tilly (1631) – the occurrence of neutral against the Emperor- The breakdown of the imperial army by the army of Saxon-Swedish under Breitenfelden (1631)- Swedish victory and the death of Gustav II Adolf Lützen (1632) and the rout of the Swedes at Nordlingen (1634)- Room in Prague (1635)

The extension of the war outside the territory of the Reich – French period (1635-1648)- France declares war on Spain – fighting in Spain, the Netherlands and Germany- The victory of France, after a series of defeats, the army imperial and Bavarian in Rheinfelden (1638)- The weakening of the imperial army – trying to make peace with Sweden by the Emperor Ferdinand III- The breakdown of the Spaniards by the French army at Rocroi (1643) – Franco-Spanish War to 1659- French victory over Bavaria, the defeat of the imperial army in a challenge with the Swedes at the Jankov – start peace negotiations- Another victory of French troops – at Nordlingen (1645) and Lens (1648).

Peace of Westphalia (1648)- Territorial acquisitions – Alsace and the bishopric of Metz and Verdun to France; Vorpommern for Sweden; Lausitz for Saxony; Pomerania and Kolberg for Brandenburg- Recognition of the independence of Switzerland and the Netherlands- Restoration of the Peace of Augsburg 1555- Return on assets Protestants received by the emperor in 1624- German principalities granting the right to conduct a separate foreign policy (the actual collapse of the Reich)

Effects of 30-year war- Increase the role of France in Europe and an end to the domination of the Habsburgs- Loss of life (eg Pomerania, Mecklenburg 90% of the population)- Destruction war – reconstruction of economic and demographic next 100 years- Strengthening of the Habsburgs in the Czech Republic and Hungary- The end of the religious wars in Germany.

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