Archive for November, 2013

MiG-25 Foxbat ( II )

November 21st, 2013

MiG-25jpg

Description of the structure

 

It seems to me that it would be best to introduce the technical characteristics of this rather unconventional after all machines on the example of the variant MiG- 25PD , currently the only varieties that are used for hunting in the reorganized Russian Air Force. So heavy interceptor MiG- 25PD is basically a single seat , twin-engine grzbietopłatem built in the classical system , with redoubled vertical tail . As mentioned above , the structure of the aircraft is made of 80% nickel steel type WNS -2 , WNS WNS -4 -5 , in 8-9% of titanium and 11% of a special thermal resistant aluminum alloy -type D19 . The system is the strength of the hull tank divided into compartments inside reinforced stringers , zespawanym airtight and filled with fuel. Rails are very densely spaced , at 25 minimetrów places . Hull coating has a thickness of 0.6 millimeters. Received wing cover thickness from 3 mm to 0.8 mm hull at the ends . Most heaters in place of the airframe , especially the leading edges of wings and tail were covered with a layer of titanium. The hull in front of an oval , flattened sides. The air intakes, a more wide cross-section similar to a rectangle , distributed over the front and rear . At the rear of the hull container placed on the parachute . The wing slant 42 degrees at the hull and 4o degrees ‘ at the ends ; trailing edge bevel around 9 degrees. The wings are short and broad , with a lift of negative -5 degrees , two degrees of angle adjustment and the relative thickness of 3.7% in the base of the wing and 4.76% at the end. On the upper surface of each wing is called . aerodynamic ridge on the ends of thin trays of equipment fitted at the same time so . weight against flatterowe . Valves with ventilator can be rotated by 25 degrees to 45 degrees off and landing . Darts swing about 25 degrees. Tail plane plate with a taper of 50 degrees along the leading edge span of 8.74 m and area of 9.81 m2. Swings clockwise or differential ( for longitudinal control in flight at high speed ) . The maximum deflection of the tail along the leading edge is in the range +13 / -32 degrees. The tail surfaces are doubled and parted to the side . They are complemented by two under the aerodynamic hull guides , slant front edge of 54 degrees , the back four steps . The maximum deflection of the rudder is 25 degrees . The machine has an automatic control system SAU- 155P1 , integrated with automatic adjustment of the control ARU- 9 . Chassis support standard three . Shin chassis has dual front wheel measuring 700 x 200 mm , additionally equipped with a fender and pulled forward in the hull. Other main wheels are sized 1300 x 360mm . It is also possible the establishment of the main landing gear skis ( next to the wheel ) . Track of the main landing gear is 3.85 m , and the base chassis – 5,139 m The braking during landing pilot can use two parachutes braking system ( It seems to me that it would be best to introduce the technical characteristics of this rather unconventional after all machines on the example of the variant MiG- 25PD , currently the only varieties that are used for hunting in the reorganized Russian Air Force.   So heavy interceptor MiG- 25PD is basically a single seat , twin-engine grzbietopłatem built in the classical system , with redoubled vertical tail . As mentioned above , the structure of the aircraft is made of 80% nickel steel type WNS -2 , WNS WNS -4 -5 , in 8-9% of titanium and 11% of a special thermal resistant aluminum alloy -type D19 . The system is the strength of the hull tank divided into compartments inside reinforced stringers , zespawanym airtight and filled with fuel. Rails are very densely spaced , at 25 minimetrów places . Hull coating has a thickness of 0.6 millimeters. Received wing cover thickness from 3 mm to 0.8 mm hull at the ends . Most heaters in place of the airframe , especially the leading edges of wings and tail were covered with a layer of titanium. The hull in front of an oval , flattened sides. The air intakes, a more wide cross-section similar to a rectangle , distributed over the front and rear . At the rear of the hull container placed on the parachute . The wing slant 42 degrees at the hull and 4o degrees ‘ at the ends ; trailing edge bevel around 9 degrees. The wings are short and broad , with a lift of negative -5 degrees , two degrees of angle adjustment and the relative thickness of 3.7% in the base of the wing and 4.76% at the end. On the upper surface of each wing is called . aerodynamic ridge on the ends of thin trays of equipment fitted at the same time so . weight against flatterowe . Valves with ventilator can be rotated by 25 degrees to 45 degrees off and landing . Darts swing about 25 degrees. Tail plane plate with a taper of 50 degrees along the leading edge span of 8.74 m and area of ​​9.81 m2. Swings clockwise or differential ( for longitudinal control in flight at high speed ) . The maximum deflection of the tail along the leading edge is in the range +13 / -32 degrees. The tail surfaces are doubled and parted to the side . They are complemented by two under the aerodynamic hull guides , slant front edge of 54 degrees , the back four steps . The maximum deflection of the rudder is 25 degrees . The machine has an automatic control system SAU- 155P1 , integrated with automatic adjustment of the control ARU- 9 . Chassis support standard three . Shin chassis has dual front wheel measuring 700 x 200 mm , additionally equipped with a fender and pulled forward in the hull. Other main wheels are sized 1300 x 360mm . It is also possible the establishment of the main landing gear skis ( next to the wheel ) . Track of the main landing gear is 3.85 m , and the base chassis – 5,139 m The braking during landing pilot can use two parachutes braking system with 60 and 50 m2. On the left ridge kadłubowym founded lowered to the bottom of the boom that hit just before landing on the concrete , and will automatically release the braking parachute . The drive unit are two turbojet with afterburner stacked next to each other in the back of the fuselage. The first prototype was assembled engines R- 15B -300 with the maximum at 73.55 kN ( 7,500 lb ) and with afterburner 100.12 kN ( 10 210 lb ) . The aircraft MiG- 25P was assumed engine R- 15B -300 of the burn-up increased to 109.83 kN ( 11 200 lb ) , and the string without burning remained unchanged. The in-service aircraft MiG -25 used a newer engine R- 15BD -300 . Last manufactured engines R- 15BD -300 had about 1000 hours life . Fuel weighing approximately 15000 kg (depending on modification) contained in the six compartments of the hull , four tanks in the wings and vertical ballasts . there is also the possibility of attaching to the hull of the tank with a capacity of 5280 liters , length of 11.05 m and a diameter of 1.0 m (except aircraft early series ) . The aircraft MiG- 25PD fuel capacity is 14470 kg in internal tanks and 4470 kg in the tank accessories. In the electronic – fighting equipment consists of the MiG – 25PD order: – Doppler radar station Sapfir -25 (also known as S -500 or N -005 ) versions of the RP- 25 , RP -25M or RP – 25mn . It has the ability to detect targets flying against the ground. Detection range bomber type TU -16 flying at high altitude is 10o – 110 km , and the range of automatic tracking of 75-80 km. Against the background of these land values ​​are 27-30 km and 22-25 km). Azimuth observation zone is from 30 to 60 stpni , depending on the mode. In addition, a cone search can be shifted by 56 degrees. In the corner to raise the radar antenna moves 14 degrees , and the axis of observation sector may be inclined by +52 / -42 degrees . The radiolocator Smiercz -A2 used in the earlier Migue – 25P has an automatic target tracking range of 50 km and a detection range for the effective reflection surface equal to 16m2 – 100 km . These data correspond to the target size of the tactical bomber . Gas is looking for target 60 degrees in azimuth and angle of 6 degrees to improve . It can work in two -óch shortwave (2 and 3- centimeter ) . – An integrated complex guidance and navigation ( Russian engineers apparently very delighted in determining the self-created complex electronic components with the word ” kopleks ” ) inspiration -11 , which provides , among others automatic return to the set route with three turning points , returning to one of four preset performance of airports and landing incident to a height of 50 meters . MiG – 25P and MiG – 25PD cooperate with ground guidance system Wozduch – 1M. Guidance on the target can be performed in automatic mode or command at that . In automatic mode, the command of the ground station via the on-board guidance reception apparatus azure ‘ and control system SAU- 155P1 is sent directly to the reins of the aircraft, without the remote control. In command mode at that the same commands are transmitted to the pilot in the form of messages on -board instruments . Additional arrows on indicators of the course, speed and altitude position themselves near the value calculated by the ground system . The purpose of the pilot is to rip the flight to the instructions printed from the ground. This way the pilot is conducted until the capture to the radar board , he takes the initiative further , with possible potential hints of earth. – Other equipment of the machine MiG- 25PD is a standard set of equipment of Soviet fighter aircraft of these years. The equipment includes , among others, Gas active response SO- 69, the device corresponding to the SRO -2N , designed to cooperate with the ground-based radars , as well as the module corresponding to an asking – SRZO -15 complex warning BEACON -3 . Navigation equipment consists of a small amount of radio altimeter RW- 3 and RW -4 , high-altitude radio altimeter RW- 18 and RW -19 automatic radio compass ARK -10 , the receiver signals from MRP- 56P marker , radio- navigation system dog tags close RSBN -6S and the system instrument Landing SP -50 . The aircraft has two radios : R- 832M (for FM ) and R -864 ( to KF ) . The potential battle MiG – 25P and MiG – 25PD is suspended on four arms , placed directly under the wings . It consists of usually four target missiles air-to- air R- 40 in the trendy widely today in aviation Soviet system of several varieties of the same rocket. In the case of missile R -40 ( NATO known as AA -6 ” Acrid ” ) for initial use radar guided variant of the R- 40R and R- 40T heat . Recently, the MiG- 25PD aircraft armament consists of four modernized missile R- 40D versions of R- 40RD and R- 40TD or two missiles R- 40D and four air combat maneuvering missiles R- 60M . as far as I know, the machine interceptor version , due probably to the expected nature of its possible future combat missions , shooting weapons abandoned . the fighter is equipped with automatically lockable in the cockpit . moving part covers leans to the right. aircraft is a single-seat , and the pilot is seated on a chair katapultowanym KM- 1M. with 60 and 50 m2. On the left ridge kadłubowym founded lowered to the bottom of the boom that hit just before landing on the concrete , and will automatically release the braking parachute . The drive unit are two turbojet with afterburner stacked next to each other in the back of the fuselage. The first prototype was assembled engines R- 15B -300 with the maximum at 73.55 kN ( 7,500 lb ) and with afterburner 100.12 kN ( 10 210 lb ) . The aircraft MiG- 25P was assumed engine R- 15B -300 of the burn-up increased to 109.83 kN ( 11 200 lb ) , and the string without burning remained unchanged. The in-service aircraft MiG -25 used a newer engine R- 15BD -300 . Last manufactured engines R- 15BD -300 had about 1000 hours life . Fuel weighing approximately 15000 kg (depending on modification) contained in the six compartments of the hull , four tanks in the wings and vertical ballasts . there is also the possibility of attaching to the hull of the tank with a capacity of 5280 liters , length of 11.05 m and a diameter of 1.0 m (except aircraft early series ) . The aircraft MiG- 25PD fuel capacity is 14470 kg in internal tanks and 4470 kg in the tank accessories. In the electronic – fighting equipment consists of the MiG – 25PD order: – Doppler radar station Sapfir -25 (also known as S -500 or N -005 ) versions of the RP- 25 , RP -25M or RP – 25mn . It has the ability to detect targets flying against the ground. Detection range bomber type TU -16 flying at high altitude is 10o – 110 km , and the range of automatic tracking of 75-80 km. Against the background of these land values are 27-30 km and 22-25 km). Azimuth observation zone is from 30 to 60 stpni , depending on the mode. In addition, a cone search can be shifted by 56 degrees. In the corner to raise the radar antenna moves 14 degrees , and the axis of observation sector may be inclined by +52 / -42 degrees . The radiolocator Smiercz -A2 used in the earlier Migue – 25P has an automatic target tracking range of 50 km and a detection range for the effective reflection surface equal to 16m2 – 100 km . These data correspond to the target size of the tactical bomber . Gas is looking for target 60 degrees in azimuth and angle of 6 degrees to improve . It can work in two -óch shortwave (2 and 3- centimeter ) . – An integrated complex guidance and navigation ( Russian engineers apparently very delighted in determining the self-created complex electronic components with the word ” kopleks ” ) inspiration -11 , which provides , among others automatic return to the set route with three turning points , returning to one of four preset performance of airports and landing incident to a height of 50 meters . MiG – 25P and MiG – 25PD cooperate with ground guidance system Wozduch – 1M. Guidance on the target can be performed in automatic mode or command at that . In automatic mode, the command of the ground station via the on-board guidance reception apparatus azure ‘ and control system SAU- 155P1 is sent directly to the reins of the aircraft, without the remote control. In command mode at that the same commands are transmitted to the pilot in the form of messages on -board instruments . Additional arrows on indicators of the course, speed and altitude position themselves near the value calculated by the ground system . The purpose of the pilot is to rip the flight to the instructions printed from the ground. This way the pilot is conducted until the capture to the radar board , he takes the initiative further , with possible potential hints of earth. – Other equipment of the machine MiG- 25PD is a standard set of equipment of Soviet fighter aircraft of these years. The equipment includes , among others, Gas active response SO- 69, the device corresponding to the SRO -2N , designed to cooperate with the ground-based radars , as well as the module corresponding to an asking – SRZO -15 complex warning BEACON -3 . Navigation equipment consists of a small amount of radio altimeter RW- 3 and RW -4 , high-altitude radio altimeter RW- 18 and RW -19 automatic radio compass ARK -10 , the receiver signals from MRP- 56P marker , radio- navigation system close RSBN -6S and the system instrument Landing SP -50 . The aircraft has two radios : R- 832M (for FM ) and R -864 ( to KF ) . The potential battle MiG – 25P and MiG – 25PD is suspended on four arms , placed directly under the wings . It consists of usually four target missiles air-to- air R- 40 in the trendy widely today in aviation Soviet system of several varieties of the same rocket. In the case of missile R -40 ( NATO known as AA -6 ” Acrid ” ) for initial use radar guided variant of the R- 40R and R- 40T heat . Recently, the MiG- 25PD aircraft armament consists of four modernized missile R- 40D versions of R- 40RD and R- 40TD or two missiles R- 40D and four air combat maneuvering missiles R- 60M . as far as I know, the machine interceptor version , due probably to the expected nature of its possible future combat missions , shooting weapons abandoned . the fighter is equipped with automatically lockable in the cockpit . moving part covers leans to the right. aircraft is a single-seat , and the pilot is seated on a chair katapultowanym KM- 1M.

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MiG-25 Foxbat

November 21st, 2013

mig

History :

 

Interceptor MiG -25 ( NATO reporting in ” Foxbat ” ) was developed by the Soviet design bureau . A. Mikoyan in the late 50’s and 60’s. When the new design was first observed during the test , caused considerable consternation among Western experts and analysts. It seemed that the new fighter is a clear progression and a big technological leap in the development of Soviet military aircraft structures . No one back then could not believe that , in fact, his performance is much weaker than expected , and even design the airframe proved to be more simpler that originally anticipated . Design work on the new interceptor advanced high-speed horizontal flight launched around mid- 50s on order of command of the Air Force Air Defence . Under the assumptions of future fighter aircraft was to be the Soviet riposte to a new generation of American dog tags flying machines that are able to in-flight at that altitude close to the border three times the speed of sound or even slightly exceed it . In addition, the new design should be characterized by a strong , modern weapons , including rocket having a new air-to- air medium or long range , and a modern avionics allowing to operate properly regardless of the prevailing meteorological conditions. To be fair that raised above requirements were quite high for the period of the late 50’s and 60’s. High performance developed at that time in the United States for the USAAF and SAC ( ” Strategic Air Command” – the strategic air command ) the construction of a large supersonic bomber XB -70 ” Valkyrie ” and the high-altitude fighter A-11 – a prototype of the later YF -12A (which is a derivative of among other things, high-speed reconnaissance aircraft SR -71 ) accounted for the then defense systems very serious and difficult to solve the problem . In 1961 , Americans finally had to realize that the project XB -70 proved to be too ambitious at that time as to their technical capabilities and design . However, despite the design of the new Soviet fighter aircraft MiG -25 was already in an advanced stage such that it was decided to continue the entire project . In developing the new aircraft with such a high-performance , knows how to fly at a speed of about Mach 3 from the start began to pile up more difficulties and controversies related to this issue. One of the biggest problems to which they have to face the structural unit Artyom Mikoyan was the phenomenon . thermal barrier , or excessive heating of some elements of the airframe as a result of the forces of air resistance .Thus, predicted that the friction aerodynamic flight with such a high speed will cause heating of the surface of the carrier aircraft to 300 degrees, which is significantly above the theoretical maximum temperature of 130 degrees. Of course, in these conditions, most of the aluminum alloys used at that time was losing its mechanical properties , so the design of combat aircraft flying at speeds exceeding Mach 3 value then posed a very serious difficulties and required zastowania the latest developments in the field of metallurgy and newly developed welding processes to obtain new metal alloys with a much higher strength than before . It was extremely important to prevent the phenomenon known . fatigue , that is, to avoid breakage and possible deformation of the whole structure of the airframe during flight. There was also some questionable issues in relation to the union of elements in order to achieve the highest level of durability. Resolved in a manner quite radical – 80 % coverage of the plane is made of hardened steel, 11% of aluminum and 8-9 % of titanium and its derivatives. No less hassle caused the aerodynamic problems . In order to achieve a satisfactory level of stability and good maneuverability without sacrificing the intended performance such as high speed and altitude , the designers chose a novel at that time the configuration of large , moderately strong diagonal thin wings , structurally sophisticated , adjustable geometry , and side air vents to motors and dual vertical tail . To ensure an appropriate range and endurance as much as about 70% of the volume of the interior design was used for fuel tanks . For diesel engines , avionics and cockpit systems developed modern insulation and cooling . In 1963 built the first prototype of a future interceptor MiG -25 , designated as the default e- 155P (actually Je- 155Pi where the abbreviation “Pi ” means ” Pieriechwatczik ” – intercept ) . Took off on the first flight March 6, 1964 year flown by an experienced pilot of the factory Alexander Fedotov (who many years later, in 1977, made ​​the first test flight of a new fighter front – the famous MiG -29 ” Fulcrum ” ) . already above the first attempt in the air revealed a number of new problems. need to redesign the wings turned out , changing the angle wedge of 2 degrees and giving it a height of negative 5 degrees. then already improved prototype E – 155P and three more machines were sent immediately to the state tests that were conducted in 1967. Upon successful passing of the new aircraft were sent in 1969 to the production. After it was first presented to the public during the air show at the airport Domodiewo 9 July 1967 year. Experts from the North Atlantic , probably assuming that this is the aircraft already in the service of the Soviet air Force, or it is already very close to being submitted to it , gave it the name of NATO’s codename ” Foxbat ” , which as did any code started with the letter F , provided the fighters were built in the USSR. identified it at the wrong initially as the MiG -23 . Russians of that , purely academic though , mistakes obviously did not deign to correct . the first prototype, serial version of the fighter was flown by Peter Ostapienkę 9 September 1964 year. A more complex variant , designated MiG- 25P, had fully integrated weapons systems . aircraft received a new front fuselage , located under the cover of a large radar antenna aiming Smiercz -A E – 155P -1. After that produced nine aircraft to carry out the final state qualifying test . Given such high performance capabilities and was born as a prototype version of the finding , referred to as E – 155R . performance far exceeded original expectations , so under the new designation E -266 ( Je- 266) two planes E and E – 155P – 155R made a series of flights, a record . fixed the new world records – on the fly along a closed circuit and altitude – exceeding the value achieved by the YF -12A ( a derivative of the Lockheed a-11 .) on October 5 1967 years Komarov test pilot set a new speed record on the fly along a closed circuit 500 kilometers , amounting to 2,981.5 km / h Although the E – 155P -1 first flew in September 1964 but he did not receive military commissions approval until 1970. Moreover, , does not enter the equipment WWS ( ” Wojennyjo – Wzdusznych Force ” – that is, the Air Force ) until 1973. MiG – 25P had a new radar RP- 25 Smiercz -A ( in NATO code named ” Fox Fire ” ) with a detection range of nearly 100 km and tracking range of 50 km . He could detect and track targets independently or using data from ground-based radar , provided the aircraft by radio. After capturing the plane could fly into the firing of projectiles all by itself , automatically sensing heads seeking purpose.

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Suchoj SU-27IB/SU-34 ( III )

November 21st, 2013

SU11

Ranks

 

Impact prototype aircraft SU- 27IB was first presented to the public on Air MAX ` 92 A year later appeared again , this time for MAX ` 93 , demonstrating with a pair of SU -30 aircraft refueling in the air with a flying tanker IL- 78M . At that time the aircraft has changed unofficially marking on the SU -34 and was also nicknamed ” Platypus ” (called ” Platypus ” ) due to the relatively originally formed the front of the fuselage. But by the time it is put into service aircraft will be temporarily wore the previous mark. Despite inadequate funding , work on the SU- 27IB program moving forward .  Since the spring of 1997, the research center glycerol ( ” Gosudarstvenny Lotno – Ispytatielnyj Center ” ) in Achtubińsku underway to state aircraft , especially its weapon system and fire control . These tests were completed around June 2000. Work is in progress not only on weapons systems for SU – 27IB , but it is also the continuing growth of its platform . After the addition of new equipment , larger fuel supply , reinforce the structure , the plane was finally over and a half times heavier than output SU-27S/SU-27UB machines . With a full supply of weapons machine now weighs more than 45 tons , compared with about 30 tons of the SU -27. Thus, the SU- 27IB were not sufficient hitherto used , and only cosmetically improved engines AL- 31FM . This is important if the airplane is to meet the requirements for a wide range of applications. Stock Dlateg a machine , designated the design office as T – 10WS , will be different from the constructed units having new engines Lulka -Saturn AL- 41F . These are turbo engines with low string dwuprzepływości reaching maximum burn-up of about 175kN , which is about 40% more drive units used so far . AL- 41F engines give serial SU- 27IB jump in performance. This applies, in particular, acceleration and cruising speed , which ultimately is to be supersonic . Ergonomics of these units will be beneficial also to the range of the aircraft, which can exceed 4000 km . It can also be further enhanced through the use of pop-up boom refueling in the air , and that was not originally anticipated , the additional external fuel tanks , which carry most of the machines in the family SU -27 is not suitable . To keep the machine właściwośi stealth , these engines will also receive special newer style filters to lower the temperature of exhaust gases from the engines , which will also more effectively Applications up confusion missiles from hand-held portable anti-aircraft kits . In order to improve the maneuverability is also used during the moving vector , similar to those familiar with the machine SU -37 , SU- 30MKI and competitive SU- 27KUB – two-seater fighter jet impingement future for the Russian Navy . Of course, it is known that the increased weight and aerodynamic perfection impaired will make the SU- 27IB will not be as agile as the rest of the SU -27 , but the result , in comparison with its predecessor the SU- 24M and aging U.S. F- 111B engines , or even machines Tornado IDS , actually has no equal in this regard. With the acquired characteristics of the new tactical bomber not only replaces the older SU- 24M , but also , in part, may relieve heavy strategic bombers TU- 22M3 and TU – 95MS in tasks involving the fight against major facilities enemy deep in its territory. Of course, the SU- 27IB can also perform tactical and strategic impact of nuclear weapons . His fighting ability rather predispose him to perform the tasks offensive role intermediate between the bomber tactical and strategic . Thanks to these characteristics, the aircraft can therefore be used very flexibly on the battlefield . Also, do not forget about its ability to combat air targets . Strong and ultra-modern radar , combined with a rich set of weapons air-to- air make in the fight against the large and medium- haul SU- 27IB persists classic air superiority fighters . It is also worth mentioning that the plane will eventually interact with machines fighting radiolelektronicznej SU- 27MP and SU- 27R reconnaissance . Both structures are based entirely on the airframe SU- 27IB and so far are in the prototype stage . As already hinted above, in 1994, began limited production so . przedseryjnych copies of SU- 27IB in factories in Novosibirsk, belonging to the group NAPO . They differed fundamentally from the prototype T -10W . First and foremost is reinforced chassis as well as substantially larger has been characteristic ” sting ” between the nozzles. Not only enriched by new systems of warfare, but also the viewing radar a little extra back and cooperating with urządzenim B- 004 . The aircraft was also new vertical stabilizers . Significantly increased the ” hump ” for the cockpit . As I mentioned earlier , aircraft przedseryjne to June 2000 were subject to more or less intensively tested ( the whole intensity was conditioned unfortunately skimpy budget ) under different conditions. At least one of the existing copies of the SU- 27IB was even temporarily sent to Chechnya to check the actual performance of his arms and evaluate the effectiveness of co-operation with ground troops in combat . On this day, advanced aircraft development program impingement SU- 27IB actually come to an end and soon you can expect to start building more mass serial machines whose prototype was designated as T – 10WS (where ” S ” stands for ” Sieryinyj ” – or ” serial ” ) . There is some disagreement as to the proper generation of aircraft attributed to the present machine. On this day, in fact assumed that the SU- 27IB belongs to a generation 4 + fighter aircraft , although some experts are of the opinion that the machine is at the present stage of development so advanced that it can be already included the 5th generation . Anyway, it is certainly a very promising aircraft , so its possible production is by far the modern Russian air force prorytetową matter , as held by the WWS park Flight inevitably ages and for 2015-2020 the number of machines must be replaced . At the launch of the construction of the aircraft probably the most concern has established NAPO in Novosibirsk , as opposed to other air companies producing different varieties of SU -27 , and especially relatively prosperous IAPO aircraft factory in Irkutsk , which is currently out of India for the first SU- 30MKI and the PRC on the aircraft SU- 30MKK , NAPO plants have serious financial problems. Although they have already produced the first 10 SU- 27IB , but the charge for none of them has not yet been paid by the Air Force , so the contract for the construction of new aircraft for them it is extremely serious . In addition, the board of directors NAPO also hopes to conclude with other recipients of export contracts . Despite the fact that the SU- 27IB has all the chances of success in other large defense markets , it is the number of potential customers is as yet a rather sparse. The plane is mostly quite large and expensive , tho may be an alternative for countries considering the purchase of a small amount of long range heavy bombers . One of them may be the PRC , which , despite orders machines SU- 30MKK , looking for a successor to today held by them , now hopelessly obsolete machinery N -5 ( IL-28 built in China ) and the old N -6 ( TU -16 Chinese production). Chances for SU – 27IB seem to be low , as the Chinese doctrine probably strike fighter SU- 30MKK would assume the main burden of the shock action on ground targets . An additional problem for SU-27IB/SU-34 is strong competition from the SU- 27KUB , fighter built by the company in Achtubińsku AAPO as a multi-purpose fighter for the Navy and that more information should appear in a study on marine SU-27K/SU- 33 Both machines were designed for show similar , except that the SU- 27KUB developed as a fighter crew may carry similar equipment and perform similar tasks . However, SU- 27IB is ready, and the SU- 27KUB is still in the prototype stage . Despite this, however, may be a direct competitor for SU – 27IB , especially its maritime variant SU-32FN/SU-32MF export markets. It is , however, still pay attention to that in the near future there may be a sudden , sharp increase in export capacity aircraft , because by that time the aircraft as the F- 111B , SU- 24M or Sepecat completely get old Jaguar and Tornado IDS fighter-bombers and F- 15E will present much lower values ​​of battle from the Russian construction and there might be a chance for any contracts for the SU- 27IB . Therefore, it is undoubtedly an investment in the future , as the SU -34 has to be one of the four basic Russian warplanes future. If only the Russian Air Force failed to comply with a preliminary agreement to buy about 500 aircraft of this type in the 10-15 years group NAPO could even recover financial stability. In addition to the basic SU- 27IB , who soon should take a permanent designation SU -34 , it was also mentioned previously modified marine version , designated as SU- 32FN , m.in equipped with a system to detect and fight against surface targets Sea Dragon . There has also its export version , designated as SU- 32MF . This aircraft is guided more by the export , because it is unlikely that the SU- 32FN was admitted to naval aviation , and besides contract to board a fighter for the Russian Navy Strike Force SU- 27KUB , dedicated to the Russian aircraft carrier , is almost certain. A further development of the SU- 27IB is SU- 27R – a modern tactical reconnaissance aircraft , designed to displace the old , which is still in service MiG – 25RBW and fast already aging front reconnaissance aircraft SU- 24MR . The prototype passes the test if intense , and the plane soon , perhaps later this year is expected to be ready for mass production . Expected to equip it , like its predecessor the SU- 24MR , with an appropriate , tailored to the requirements of today’s high apparatus for photographic dog tags reconnaissance and electronic , both integral and underslung . As in the case of SU- 27MP , closeup future aircraft , which also has to be completed soon , too much detail is not yet known . SU- 27MP should fill the gaps that have arisen in the Russian Air Force after early withdrawal of tactical aircraft closeup SU- 24MP . Currently, it is extremely difficult to estimate future production volumes airframe SU- 27IB , but certainly the Russian Air Force will want to have them around the year 2015 to 2020 no less than they currently SU- 24M , which is about 550 pieces all versions of roughly the same proportions . If you are to believe the assurances of Gen. Anatoly Kornukowa , the current commander of the Russian Air Force , is a next-generation air equipment should go to the operating units more mass around 2008 . Moreover, if this rather optimistic variant of the situation to materialize , the aircraft is likely to remain in service in the Air Force formations ( WWS ) until the year 2050 , representing up to that time, the basis of their striking force .

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Suchoj SU-27IB/SU-34 ( II )

November 21st, 2013

SU-34photo3

Description of the structure:

SU- 27IB is a two-seat , supersonic bomber designed to destroy the front row of various ground on the far frontiers . The aircraft is built , like its progenitor – SU- 27UB , the twin-engine configuration , with redoubled wolnonośnego średniopłata vertical tail . The construction is composed of plane of modern metal alloy , wherein a ratio greater than previously used titanium alloys , tungsten , LItaliano , chromium as well as specialized composite materials . The structure of the aircraft used in many places and numerous , ultralight builders , including polyurethane foam . The hull of variable cross-section has the structure of a half shell . Fore part of the composite , radio transparent fairing , which houses the cell tracking systems . The front part is very inclined , flat , and a specially shaped , either to improve the visibility of the cockpit as well as reduce the radar echo . The bow compartment is located cockpit . Dashboard has two crew members during combat flight sitting in chairs K-36DM/2-06 class zero-zero . It was built in a ” side-by – side ” (called ” arm- to- arm ” ) . The crew are the pilot and weapons operator . As mentioned earlier , the cabin SU- 27IB is the first aircraft of this class cabin wysokofosforową , as it is very high and spacious . What’s more , the pilot can get out of the chair and completely straight. On the back there is a small compartment that houses a microwave , a container for excrement and first aid kit. Inside the cabin to the flight ceiling of 10,000 feet conditions are maintained at a height of 2400 meters above sea level , which allows the crew during the flight actually work without the use of oxygen masks . At the rear cockpit protects the high hump , and the front and sides of a thick armored glass . The whole is placed in a strong titanium frames of a 17 millimeter walls . On the right side , at the base of the influx of the wing is mounted cannon . Engine air intakes are located , as in the serial SU- 27UB , the center wing . Wings , also adapted to the structure used Photo SU -27 , have a contour band . The tail surfaces , a large vertical ballasts is doubled .The horizontal tail is a plate . The chassis is kept and as usual trójpodporowe . As the aircraft in relation to the SU- 27UB put on weight , and it also has been substantial reconstruction. Front chassis unit is doubled , has two wheels type KN- 27, size 680 × 260 Shaving carbonaceous chassis mounts have a design very zbbliżonej to those used for Migue -31. Are installed in tandem , the two wheels KT -206 with dimensions of 950 × 400 In zaskrzydłowej of the fuselage , the nacelles are separate drive unit , which in the beginning were two turbo engines Liulka Saturn AL- 31F designed in OKB im. Archippus Liulki , each of them producing a string of 85.3 kN with afterburner at 122.63 kN. This drive has , moreover , specifically for SU- 27IB , further upgrades (including the version of the AL- 31FM ) . The hull and wing integral tanks hold about 12,000 gallons of fuel . Chambers also received a complete fuel in the form of foam , effectively reducing the risk of fire in the event of damage odniesionego . Additional equipment is very good, fast-acting fire prevention systems . Aircraft equipped with elektroimpulsowy active dog tags control system . The matrix avionics aircraft SU- 27IB are : – Radiolocator B- 004 modern slot antenna scanning system using phase ( e ) . As mentioned earlier, the maximum range for detection of air by the specified device is about 250 kilometers. Radar B- 004 is also able to efficiently detect and track ground objects , and above water, channeled into the objectives missiles air -to-ground (or – air-to- water) , as well as on an ongoing basis to create an accurate radar map area , integrated navigation systems indicated , in practice the necessary to navigate the distant combat flights at very low altitude . Fire control system based on radar B- 004 is one of the most modern in the world, and said radiolocator operates in very high resolution. – Accessories and at the same time complement complex combat SU- 27IB was supposed to be , then dropped in serial machines, electro-optical system designed for enterprise Geophysics . Additional combat gear is characteristic of the modern Russian fighter jets , in the case of SU- 27IB intended for self-defense purposes nachełmowy distribution unit air – tight 3um , working with well-known of the SU- 27S laser rangefinder type KOLS -27 , located in a small transparent cover located right in front of the cockpit . The homing missile air-to- ground laser guided and televised channel system serves several UOMZ -EO . Everything is controlled by the on-board computer system, Argon ( Argon series Early systems used to control the avionics including the MiG -31) . The cabin equipment consists of seven modern liquid crystal displays MFI series . The aircraft has IFF ” us / them ” a Parol . – A closeup plane has a very rich integrated active and passive interference . In the prototype aircraft in the ” sting ” set up between the nozzles launchers placed APP -50 increased twice as compared to the SU- 27IB number of traps a thermal PPI- 26 and a dipole strips PPR -26 . SU- 27IB , in addition to built-in active electronic warfare system can also benefit from the trays Sorbiczija . They set the radar radiation source (eg, hostile ground radar station ) and emit in the direction of strong interfering signals . These modules underwent anyway , as far as the formation of a prototype machine series , continuous upgrades . The main armament firing bomber SU- 27IB is a classic cannon GSh -301 30mm caliber , placed in the same manner as the other versions of the SU -27 , ie at the edge of the flow right. Other offensive weapons , with a total weight of eight tons , is suspended for 12 nodes Suspension – 4 and 8 under the fuselage under the wings . Four external nodes of launchers tpu P -72 -1D (one under and on the wing tip ) are used to transfer defense missile air-to- air short-range R- 73 and the medium-range R- 77, and in addition, if required by the nature of the task , Sorbiczija modules . Since the plane can be used for tasks specific to hunting equipment , can transfer to other pylons very wide range of anti-aircraft missile . In addition to all of the family of missiles R-27 machine also provides for new equipment airline , including , among others 9M96 missiles from the S- 400 and included in the air-to- air long range . Weapons designed to fight the cell surface and constitutes a proper version SU- 27IB , divided into non-steered and guided . From the set of undirected Military aircraft can carry every weapon available in many proposals for its suspension . The same is the case for modern weapons guided by different methods – serial aircraft are to be ultimately designed to carry over long distances virtually all of them – so the range is very wide. In addition to guided bombs KAB – 500L , KAB – 500kr , and KAB – 1500L and KAB – 1500Kr machine can benefit from a wide range of air -to-ground missiles to 8 different projectiles with families CH -25 and CH -29 , as well as four rockets at a within CH- 59 and CH- 59M . In the near future, it is also proposed the use of newly designed air -to-ground missile type Alpha. To overcome air defense crew can use the CH- 25MP missiles and more modern CH- 58U and Kh- 31P , and the fight against maritime objectives : up to six missiles CH- 31A and CH -35, and three heavy missiles CH- 41 ” mosquito ” and the newly designed air-to- water missiles long range type Jachont . All this does not exhaust the capabilities of the airplane . because of its wide range of weaponry is constantly enriched with new types of weapons .

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Suchoj SU-27IB/SU-34

November 21st, 2013

 

Sucho

The history of the airplane:

In the mid- 80’s , due to the ever-increasing technical progress in aviation will send a number of countries, and wider access to new technologies , aviation complexes produkcjo and research around the world have taken the study of a new generation of combat aircraft . In the Soviet Union resulted , inter alia, the design of the OKB . P.Suchoja new fighter aircraft SU- 27M (SU -35 ) , which is also a kind of SU- 27, the second generation of a new , completely modernized avionics , sitting through that range of weapons , which would automatically entail a wider range of applications . A very similar way also peeled OKB im. A.Mikojana designing an airframe based on the MiG – 29A modern , lightweight multirole fighter MiG- 29M . Thus, the emergence of new technologies on the horizon in the field of military aviation and armament wymogło the future development of the concept and tactical attack aircraft . Gradually changed the doctrine of the use of tactical aircraft for the future battlefield . Military decision-makers put not only on the long range, the possibility of targeted attacks on targets that are far behind the front line and possible action to support the army , but this time they laid a lot of emphasis on greater autonomy than before action , the possibility of independent control of enemy planes , thus not involving a fighter escort that could be used for other tasks , more complex than ever before avionics and Directed energy warfare, and thus the greater the survival of the future battlefield . In the light of future requirements for tactical bomber made 90’s design team to create plants typically considered Sukhoi Assault variant SU -27. In fact, the SU -27 , having excellent performance volatile , high power silików , very long range , obtained without the need to install additional fuel tanks under the fuselage , unnecessarily increasing aerodynamic drag and reduce the amount of transferred arms , and potentially quite large capacity seemed to be the appropriate modifications of the ideal candidate for this type of fighting machine . Thus was created a separate program for the construction and development of the aircraft SU- 27IB (SU -34) . SU- 27IB (where ” IB ” means ” Istriebitiel – Bombardirowszczyk ” – literally ” Fighter- Bomber ” ) is the latest Russian air shock . Work on it was begun in the mid- 80’s. Its origin was associated , despite constantly changing military doctrine , with an urgent need for a successor tactical bomber SU- 24M ” Fencer ” . It was supposed to be a solution to fill the gap in the park Aeroplane Air Force , which was established after gradually withdrawn machines fighter- bomber SU- 17M4 ” Fitter ” and the MiG – 27M ” Flogger -G ” . So the plane was assumed to be optimized for air -to-ground action version of the SU -27 output . dog tags

The construction and development of the SU- 27IB is in many ways also associated with maritime fighter SU- 27K . In the course of the tests and research on the SU- 27K variant has also developed his two-seater , because at one time it was considered that one sequence complexity of navigation systems and fire control in the new conditions and other requirements far beyond the ability of one man .As a result of the analysis it was decided to build another prototype , designated the T-10 -39 , with a walk , side by side . To make a T-10 -39 was used a converted , serial two-seater plane SU- 27UB . This approach avoids the necessity of an appropriate redesign the entire front part of the fuselage , which is a result of the changes became more flat and less inclined than in a variation of the land . Changed the position of the front landing gear , moving them from the cabin , and the direction of his behavior on the opposite of the flight and removed the hull compensating ridges are enlarged vertical tail . In making a final decision on the introduction of the production version of the sea plane , called SU- 27K , returned at the end of the proposed single-seater variants with additional front flap control surfaces . Two-seat variant , the introduction of a number of additional amendments , was used to improve the pilot and designated as SU- 27KU ( ” Korabielnij Ucziebnyj ” – or ” school board ” ) . Thus, the initial assumption was he used to practice in the field takeoffs and landings on aircraft , maritime navigation and the use of weapons systems, air-to- water . Later, after another reconstruction , and receiving the new designation SU-32/SU-32FN was to begin service in the Russian naval aviation , driving at the same time use the formations of aircraft SU- 24M . For this option, we will return later still missing parts of this paper . Above all, however, it was decided to make it the basis for a SU- 27IB – variety of air units dedicated to WWS ( ” Wojennyjo – Wzdusznych Force ” ) , capable of destroying ground targets skuteczego in the light of the new requirements of the future battlefield . It is going to take care of this in particular. Using the run since the mid – 80’s work on the T-10 -39 started to develop its version of the parallel road . Work on the prototype of the new aircraft engineer overseeing shock . R.Martirosow . At the end of April 13, 1990 I launched , piloted by Anatoly Ivanov , the first completed prototype , pre- labeled as T -10W . He gave a start fighting machine SU- 27IB . When the construction was also used SU- 27UB airframe , which in the course of work has undergone significant changes. Changes in the airframe , as in T-10 -39 . affected mainly the front of the fuselage. Crew cabin was designed as a double , in a ” side-by – side ” (called ” arm- to- arm ” ) , to a large extent similar to the approach adopted in the antecedent – SU- 24M . The crew are the pilot and weapons operator . The plane is oriented , except for hunting tasks , including the operation of an air -to-ground . Cabin SU- 27IB is the first aircraft of this class cabin, high comfort , as it is very high and spacious . What’s more , the pilot can get out of the chair and completely straight. On the back there is a small compartment that houses a microwave , a container for excrement and first aid kit. Inside cabins are decorated 10000m altitude of 2400m above sea level conditions , which allows the crew during the flight to work without oxygen masks . Curious is the statement of General – Colonel PS Denejkina , who said that the cab SU- 27IB (T -10W ) is larger and more spacious than the cab bomber TU -160 . On the back protected by a high hump , and the front and sides of a thick armored glass . The whole was built on a titanium box with 17 millimeter walls. High emphasis on the safety of the crew in the performance of combat missions at a very low level due to the experience of using the SU -25 troopers in the war in Afghanistan, where there have been cases overshoot canopy 12.7 mm bullets wkm s DSzK . Airframe received additional front fighter flight stabilizers , and his nose was considerably flattened . The serial copies reinforced chassis ( added to the two wheels to each of the rear legs ) , adapting them to the greater weight of the airplane , and also to operate with a dirt airfields surface. Instead familiar with the SU -27 radar, the new machine SU- 27IB received very modern station with a slot antenna with electronic scanning phase B- 004 . The instrument was developed in the design office slough of St . St. Petersburg (formerly Leningrad ) , specialized for years in radar for bombers , reconnaissance aircraft and anti-submarine warfare . The maximum range of the aircraft detected by B -004 is up to 250 km . Additionally radiolocator B- 004 is able to detect and track ground targets and above water, as well as advise the air -to-ground missiles , and create accurate radar map of the area , the practice necessary for navigation on long flights at very low altitude . Wspminany fire control system, SU- 27IB is one of the most modern in the world, and radar B- 004 is in very high resolution. Currently estimated that the radar B- 004 is built by a much more advanced technology than the earlier system of RP- 31 curtains , used to Migue -31. Aircraft SU- 27IB can carry any of the currently used modern weapons air-to- air, air -to-ground and air-to- water intended for Russian tactical aircraft . In this study , or in the stage of necessary tests and tests is still a lot of innovative weapons systems . Weapons with a maximum weight of 8 tons is spread to 12 lymph suspensions ( four under the fuselage , eight under the wings ) . Aircraft equipped with the Spires distributor and dating purposes tight – 3um for missile R -73 . Additional weapon is a 30 mm cannon GSH- 301 . In contrast to previous machines of the family SU -27 , SU- 27IB variant does not have the optoelectronic detecting and tracking targets. Since the SU- 27IB is going to shock , having to fight ground targets far behind the front line , often with a strong enemy antiaircraft defense , so extensive facilities in the defenses against surface-to- air missiles is crucial for him . In addition to active prevention measures put too much emphasis on passive measures . Moreover, in order to reduce the radar echo , which in effect turned out to be smaller than the echo equipment SU- 24M , F- 111B , F – 15E , and Tornado IDS , in SU- 27IB applied much more advanced alloys and composite materials. To conduct flight at very low altitude aircraft equipped with advanced navigation systems , including satellite , working with radar , contributing to the relief scheme . December 18, 1993 a second prototype was flown SU- 27IB which at the first copy dating from Novosibirsk and one of the first copies before the serial .

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BLOODY ISLAND

November 21st, 2013

old dog tags

This is the last action of the British commando Polish soldiers from the 1st Armored Division.In November 1944 the 1st Armoured Division under the command of General Stanislaw Poppies was directed to master the Dutch port of Moerdijk at the mouth of the River Meuse. Polish pancerniacy had to fire their tanks strike transition in concrete dams Terraced few fit to travel the road dug causeways and running on the flat, pre-cut channels in which Germany is almost completely flooded with water. They joked that instead of Sherman and Cromwell should be equipped with submarines to overcome the extreme disadvantage of the armored area. dog tags

 

November 9, 1944 , after bloody battles Poles won fortified przedmościa Moerdijk, but unfortunately the Germans managed to blow up within that area of the two bridges . At that time, Polish forces reached the Meuse Division in the area to the east of Moerdijk ( separate battalion Tatra ) and in the area of Geertruidenberg – Dongen ( grouping of 10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade ) . Boje of Moerdijk exhausted forces division , which was for him a very dynamic and fruitful armored raid by France and Belgium . At Moerdijkiem Poles lost 84 officers and 1,325 privates.From November 10th division focused on controlling the Meuse, taking supplements and training. Staying in the UK I Corps ( Canadian 1st Army ) , dozorowała 25 -kilometer stretch of the river – from the west ” neighboured ” with the Canadian Armoured Car Regiment 18 , and to the east of the Canadian 4th Armoured Division . It quickly became clear , however, that not count here for a quiet ” winter quarters ” .December 16 , the German counteroffensive launched a “last resort ” in the Ardennes . Using unfavorable for aviation aura armored armies of Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt struck in the Malmedy and Bastogne, to separate the American and British forces . Surprised Americans initially suffered heavy losses , but their defense quickly solidified and the German attack began to lose momentum . After 1 January 1945 the weather improved enough that the game returned to Allied aircraft and the Germans could only dream of a repeat of the Battle of Dunkirk in 1940.

Because of the German counteroffensive in the Ardennes was to regroup the troops stationed in the region of the 1st Armored Division . The commander of the British I Corps moved from the front four Canadian Armoured Division to his odwodu , and its section on Dec. 20 took the Poles , strengthened doborowym UK 47 Royal Marine Commando and 1315 Company of the Royal Air Force Regiment .At that time, as a result of enemy activity was carried out a few rearrangements and finally at the end of December, Mozy surveillance section is divided into three sectors: western cast 47 Royal Marine Commando , middle grouping of three fixed- Polish Brigade and Squadron 10 Rifle Regiment , East 1 Artillery Regiment piercing and one Dywizjonowi Przeciwlotniczemu of Polish armored division . Then began a guerrilla war . On the one hand patrols shooters General Kurt Student’s paratroopers were trying to infiltrate from the north bank of the Meuse , on the other scorers Polish and British commandos hunted the notorious saboteurs with 150 Armoured Brigade SS Otto Skorzeny . It was a very arduous service , which struggled nerves and exhausted forces soldiers. Most patrols went on to recognize the position of the enemy. Soldiers selected for such shares have exactly all pockets are empty , so it remained the only dog tags around their necks . Took off their shoes and substituted for them gymnastic slippers . Walking on the Meuse shafts were particularly dangerous because it was difficult to surprise the enemy such as the German gunners parachute , known as Green Devils . Well known for fighting subversive and often allied patrols ended in failure and losses in their own ranks .

Most Active Military 1st Armored Division , section Meuse surveillance accounted for as of January 1945. The most difficult area for these activities was the backwater of the Old Meuse, in the area of the island Kapelsche Veer ( between Breda and Tilburg ) , which in November 1944 were unable to master the Canadian pancerniacy . The German gunners parachute przedmościa organized here on the shaft of the river , pulling a small outpost south of duds Old Meuse . Hence, organized trips to Polish institutions spread in the neighboring towns. In addition, this depressed area , flat as a table and almost completely covered in ice , was under fire from enemy mortars and guns . Division Headquarters therefore decided to eliminate the annoying ” spike ” in episode surveillance .On the night of December 31, 1944 January 1, 1945 until the attack on both przedmościa went 9 Rifles Battalion (no two companies ) supported by three regiments of artillery. Poles came under crossfire and their attack failed – 13 soldiers were killed and 37 were wounded . January 5 action performed by which they wanted to provoke the Germans to betray their positions of artillery and machine-gun nests . Under the cover of smoke patrols Riflemen przeprawiły to the north shore of the Meuse , but failed to detect only a few positions machine-guns . On the night of 6 to 7 January , once again the German przedmościa the Kapelsche Veer moved nine Battalion Rifle shooters , but this time they did not give the board the Green Devils general student .

 

After many failures, it was decided that the attack on the German bunkers in the area Kapelsche Veer will go ” najwaleczniejsi of valor ” in the British Army – Commandos 47 Royal Marine Commando. Island getaway planned for the night of the 13th to 14th January 1945 , and the preparation for the British crossing was supposed to Poland 10 Band Engineers of the 1st Armored Division .January 13 , even during the day , the Polish sappers under the cover of fog they marked the transition to the channel that separates the island from the ” Allied ” coast and prepared a portion of the bridge kapok , which at night was to be moved into place and there renewed. When it becomes dark group of commandos and sappers moved in the direction of the channel , carrying boats landing . At the same time , also came from the footbridge kapok branch on his shoulders. When the boats were on the water, we found that a strong wind , wave and backward sheet of ice just below the surface very difficult to maneuver . Increased stocking rowers and boats Sapper proved insurmountable to the other shore , dragging the rope at the same time that facilitated the crossing . At the same time put walkway .Instantly aligns to the train commandos , which seemed to go after the ” bridge ” is safer than handling in wet and torn wind boats. Equally quickly disappointed … The first ” najwaleczniejszy of valor ” stood precariously on chyboczącym in all directions kapok , which under his weight almost completely submerged in water , a soldier without a word turned around. When I saw the other commando colleague opposite , did not even try to enter the walkway . The third walked boldly forward, and when he beat half the distance , stood helplessly . To keep his spirits , followed by one of the Polish sappers who carefully past him and British commandos proved that you can go on the catwalk . Then they went to meet the elite Green Devils . As Lieutenant Joseph Jarosz says : ” He started to move on the catwalk . Watching seen how people reacted variously to see her ! Some crossed themselves , putting his foot on the kapok , often hear the curse , and there were and are many who feel more confident , walking on hands and feet . ” Boats , therefore, quickly returned to favor commandos ( it was planned that some of them will flow from the banks of the river and hit the Germans from the rear ) .On the other side of the channel 47 soldiers of the famous Royal Marine Commando regained vigor and attacked the shooters parachute commandos as befits – with daggers in their teeth and grenades in their hands . Parachute in anything they did not yield to – well fortified bunkers in their decimated the British murderous machine-gun fire . As Polish shooters a few days earlier , at dawn they returned ” to their ” on their own , only a few commandos . Wounded were transported in boats Polish sappers who have left the shores of the island at the end.This was the final action of the British commandos together with the Poles – 47 Royal Marine Commando was excluded from the composition of the 1st Armored Division . The German gunners parachute – originally trained for the tasks offensive – once again proved to be the masters of defense.January 16, 1945 the Allied command to Kapelsche Veer threw two squadrons of Spitfires , but the Air Force failed to fire machine guns to break the German defenses . Scorers parachute General Student maintained their positions on Kapelsche Veer until January 26 . Then they attacked the Canadian infantrymen of 4 Armoured Division (which has since returned to the area ) . Canadians with the support of artillery corps and two platoons of tanks floating Buffallo for the price of high losses captured German bunkers buried in the Meuse bulwark . The defending here reinforced rifle company parachuting was to January 31 stamped right to his feet.” Winter Lair ” on the Meuse were the 1st Armoured Division too quiet . Arduous service patrol , in which the soldiers repeatedly cursed ” damned Rundstedt ” numerous rearrangements and clashes claimed 180 killed, 441 wounded and 30 missing persons. With spring coming , however, a new victory over the agonizing ” one thousand ” Third Reich . Another rally Polish armored division led to a ” nursery herds wolf ” – Navy base in Wilhelmshaven .

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Tanks during the Second World War

November 15th, 2013

tige1

After a slow period of development from the time of ” inter “, with the start of World War II tanks were entering a period of rapid development . The best example would be Germany : hitting on Poland was the most numerous tank Panzer II weight 9 500 kg , 20 mm cannon and an engine power of 141.40 hp, in 1945, Panzer V Panther 45 weighed 500kg , had a 75mm gun and engine power of 709.72 hp. The British passed a similar way of ” Crusader ” and ” Centurion ” has not had time to take dog tags part in the fighting. Ways in which these six years developed ” TANKI ” are clear : massively increased firepower , increased dimensions ( it is associated with the mounted gun) , bold armor – Panzer II was 14.5 mm (30 mm) of armor, the ” Panzer V Panther ” protect crew for inclined plate thickness of 110 mm . But the war began in Poland and Pzkpfw tanks and …Polish September Let’s agree that World War II began with the invasion of Poland September 1, 1939 . Although there are historians who apparently believe that the war began in North Africa , well, everyone has some rights . And so the first …. Us in this campaign are most interested in tanks and there were quite a few there . Let me quote a few figures at that time , Poland was ranked 7th in terms of number of armored vehicles in the world.

Poles.

Let’s look at the 800 Polish tanks, they are: TK-3, CT-S so-called tankette and FT-17 Battle value of these cars are dim at this time there are about 600 pieces or 34 whole Polish armored weapons. The rest of the tank 7TP Polish production, a little bit about it. This is a car license “Vickers” “E”, reworked and adapted to our conditions. The main change is the drive on ignition (it was the first mass-produced tank of the diesel), two towers was changed to a single, reversible mounted periscope. The second machine is a valuable Renault-35 was the infantry support tank purchased in France is not the worst design (although we wanted a better Somua S-35, but we refused). This is unfortunately all when it comes to us and what the Germans have sent many.

Germany

Germany after the war were very much limited by the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles , so all the research and construction works were hidden . The first post-war German tanks are formed as agricultural tractors . In 1933, the armored division is created in the fall of her PzKpfw I . Person to be mentioned in the description of the creation of the German armored forces , is Heinz Guderian , creator of the theory of ” Blitzkrieg ” ( lightning war ), which involved the use of tanks in tight formations interacting with aviation. Strike groups were formed so as to break the enemy defense outflank and encircle . Cut off the enemy troops to liquidate . It was a very effective tactic that Germany applied with frightening efficiency in Poland , France, first in the Soviet Union. The War of the Polish Germans used the 1100 PzKpfw I, Panzer II , about 100 Panzer III , Panzer IV, two , and 70 Czech machines , in addition to cars , armored command cars and other heavy equipment . The advantage over our country was simply overwhelming . Despite the great German advantage quantitative , qualitative and tactical Germany we managed to ask significant losses.

Campaign Summary.

Tanks 7-TP showed its superiority over the mild types of German cars. There were also no chance in the event of a duel with Panzer IV (which then was a weapon disadvantage of low permeability.) German losses in the September campaign were close to 13, the equipment used (almost the same, the Germans suffered in France!).As far as our main theme is “The September campaign” did not affect the development of the “Tank-this” German commanders were so pleased with the outcome of the campaign that did not notice the lack of armored weapons. Does not look like coming campaign in France has shown that they can sleep at night, but during that time the Russians had already prepared a bucket of cold water for the Germans – “T34”!

kv_1

War in RussiaOperation “Barbarossa”

June 22, 1941 starts operation ” Barbarossa ” . Despite several months of preparation for the German invasion of the Soviet Union and intelligence reports , Russian forces are completely surprised and incur huge losses. Germany Attacks ” soviets ” in the prime of their 140 divisions , including 17 armored and 13 motorized . These forces are divided into three distinct groups: North ( Field Marshal Leeb ) , Center Field Marshal Bock ) is the largest grouping and South Field Marshal Rundstedt ) . The numbers of Germans have available: 3 000 000 soldiers , 7 100 guns and 300 tanks, three of which 1400 are Panzer III and Panzer IV, the rest is II , Panzer I and Czech machine . Nazi aircraft is equipped with two 770 aircraft . Another number of the German army has 625 000 horses ! Russians are against them with 170 divisions among them are 32 compounds reinforced with 24 thousand tanks, of which 25 % is in order, most of it is outdated and requires refurbishment and eight thousand . aircraft in the same condition as tanks .

It should be stressed that the total number of 24,000, in 1475 the tanks “KV1” and “T34” which can match any German tank, after that no German antitank gun will not do anything “KW 1″ and the Germans did not know about these tanks! Why, then, the failure of the Russians? I’ll try to answer later in the article. This differs from the subject site but the interest is high, so I think that is useful for someone, and therefore act on the eastern front had a great influence on the development of tanks, there scrolled many types of weapons.

Germany

Russians in statistics should not be a problem with the Germans , but the situation was very different . Let’s start with the military, a German soldier well trained and prepared for war for a long time , led by outstanding leaders . Germany after World War I may have only a miniature army , so the criteria for admission into the army were very high and in combination with very good training system gave it an unheard- soldiers. When Hitler came to power and Germany broke the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles , these highly trained soldiers began to train the next . The German army was also very high morale , fighting in Russia saw themselves as professionals and those were . Previous victories in Poland , Scandinavia, the Balkans and France , gave them confidence invincibility , well equipped and confident reliability of the equipment , aroused fear and respect the enemy . Allied commanders knew that if there is a clash with Germany at equal strength, a win would almost certainly Germany. Operation ” Barbarossa ” was meticulously prepared for a few months , soldiers and determined leadership .The Russians On the other hand there are Russian soldiers , virtually no trained or rather the politicization of the ubiquitous political officers , paralyzing commanding cadres . The recent war with the Finns forced a number of changes , including armored compounds are formed , these changes result in a serious confusion in the organization of the army. Although the change is rather positive but at this time not favorable. The quality of the equipment mentioned, the deployment of Soviet troops left a lot to be desired. In general it can be said that the Soviet troops operate on the principle of loyalty rather than competence. Another and perhaps the most important reason for Russia’s initial failures were purges in the army that carried Joseph Stalin in the early thirties .

 

tumors in the scene commanders and political officers with whom staff should consult any actions lead to paralysis of command. Joseph Stalin received reports of German preparations for war, even when it was known attack occurs , yet ignore this information , but even banned ! response to the German spy flights on the border and fight the Germans . He believed that the only provocation , even in the morning on June 22 when ” Barbarosa ” fully grown , ordered not to engage in combat with the Germans all along the front was not revoked. When he went back , there was no longer any front ! Another cause of early failures, this fragmentation of armor , all over the front line. An interesting fact may be that , leading the German troops were attacked from behind by the retreating Russians. Two examples of a lack of competence on the Soviet side : there are situations in which a drunken commander gives the order to attack the armored forces soldiers without weapons! or after hours training recruits move into battle in the brand new T -34 without a radio ! Hitler claimed that Soviet Russia is an old decaying ” cottage ” which is enough to kick the door and the rest will fall apart . The initial period of the war in Russia rather confirmed this opinion . But over time, the Soviet army took on combat experience and the news of the lands occupied by Germany , the German soldiers Soviet atrocities they added strength. Despite initial success ” Barbarossa ” was a fiasco Germans captured Moscow , Leningrad or Ukraine. In addition, as early as January 1942, the Soviet army was able to repel the Germans in Moscow. In Russia fell invincible myth of German soldiers . After some time, the Allies thought that the Germans as equals can only fight the Russians and the Poles.

pz38t

The German reply

Germany in early June, were shocked by Russian tanks meeting the ” KW 1″ or ” T34 ” In the latter uses many innovative solutions . The first striking were inclined plates, which increased the possibility of protective armor despite meager armor thickness (only 45 mm Hot hull and turret 52 mm ) , was resistant to fire German tanks and guns p- PANC . , Alone with his mighty at that time 76 mm chapter, wreaked destruction in the ranks of the ” Wehrmacht ” . Used diesel engine ideally suited as a drive armored vehicles , for every tonne for almost 18 hp , and therefore the oil does not ignite as easily as gasoline . Used a wide track , very well check it against a Russian conditions ( mud , snow, lack of roads ) . Another advantage of the ease of use significantly shortened training time crews. ” T- 34 ” was also easy to build and give great opportunities for development. We can say that the emergence of the “T -34 “, began a new stage in the construction of tanks. German ” Panther ” and “Tiger King ” already benefited fully from the solutions used in ” T- 34 ” . The second of the modern Russian tanks , heavy ” KW 1″ which was a two- tower development ” SMK ” .

He had become the bane of German troops. The tank was only two enemies Flak 88 mmm and 105mm howitzer. No other weapon in the German arsenal did not give him advice. It weighed 47.5 T, for comparison “T 34” 30.9 T 23 German Panzer III T. Armour came to a thickness of 75 mm cannon in 1941 was the same as the “T-34”. “KW 1” is urban known than its little brother, with a few reasons: there was less of it among the crews enjoyed a less popular because he was a tank more difficult to use, construction also posed some problems. But when it came to the meeting with the Germans, the flaws of “disappeared”. Germany described the fighting as “KW 1″:  We saw a Soviet tank battalion of unknown type; cars that passed through the infantry positions.

Soviet machine – unfortunately they did not make the slightest impression . The attacker Russians destroyed the artillery positions , including howitzers 150 mmm , working fire at the very end. Hopeless situation saved caliber anti-aircraft guns 88 mm , eliminated several other tanks and forced the Russians to retreat.Fortunately for the Germans clash with Russian engines of a new type for various reasons were not frequent , such as a small number of these vehicles and their fragmentation . However, the effects of the attacks the Russians would have been much more severe , the aggressors had the crew ” T- 34 ” and ” KW 1″ are better trained (or trained at all ), no radio ! can not remain unnoticed. Still, the new Russian armored equipment , posed a major threat to ” Wehrmacht ” .The German army captured most certainly used the equipment , it was one of the ways to deal with the threat they posed Soviet tanks . The fighting on the German side , used the Russian working F-22 76.2 mm, for which the Germans even produce ammunition , they used the ” T -34 ” and ” KW1 ” . Quickly began przezbrajać ” Panzer IV” , with the same gun , but with a longer barrel which increased the effectiveness of a fire. Hastily constructed tank destroyers such as ” Marder I” . In some areas, the gun used in the F- 22 next to the base , very efficient 47 mm . The first tank destroyer was marked not only by a weak basic equipment , but also a general lack of stability : able to just roll over . ” Marder II and III ” also did not find favor with his soldiers . Even the ” Ferdinand “, built as a tank destroyer , it did not work on the battlefield . It was a powerful weapon , but unfortunately not coped with the infantry . In the early days of Operation ” Citadel ” executed 40 pieces of these mighty armored vehicles . The rest were withdrawn and sent to Italy , where he officially changed the name to ” Elefant ” . Another , not so bad , which is not fully meeting the expectations of the destroyer was ” Nashorn ” , armed with 88 mm cannon is extremely effective, was also quite agile, but nevertheless, in the construction of ustrzeżono no errors . He was far too high , otherwise he discovered range combat .

Only Panzerjäger IV met all the requirements : low silhouette , solid armor and effective gun ( L48 ) 75 mm , all of which form a terribly effective weapon , the vehicles were widely used by anti-tank unit called ” Panzerjäger ” . There was also a second machine , very similar – looks like a small ” Panzerjäger IV” namely: Hetzer – production of our southern neighbors, the Czechs. Small , easy to hide, Germany ( Czech ) tank destroyers seriously uszczuplały weight Allied and Soviet tanks. Interestingly it may be that ” Hetzer -y” were used even for the 70’s in the army of Switzerland.In addition to the immediate construction of Germany also took other measures. They gathered in a group of designers , producencentów , management arms army and after examination of Soviet tanks , established requirements for future construction. Some front-line commanders advocated copying T34 . This was not possible , except that Germany believed that the Russians were technically inferior (transmission , suspension , gear and optical sights ) . The result of the aforementioned agreements were structures which, however, did not satisfy Hitler , commander of the German army in December 1941 . Finally, in January 1942 selected two types of Panther tanks and ” Tiger ” . In July 1942, the production line , they began to descend the first ” Tigers ” . Hitler placed his hopes in them big , pressured to introduce them as soon as possible to fight. Debuted a very unfortunate attack in a swampy area where heavy tanks could move individually , exposing themselves to attack the Soviet section of p- PANC spaced along the road. The attack failed . The Germans suffered heavy losses. Although unsuccessful debut ” Tigers ” in his later fights , have proved to be of excellent quality, were invulnerable to most Allied and Soviet tanks themselves by 88mm cannon can destroy enemy tanks from almost any distance. ” Panzer VI ” ‘mere presence introduce confusion in the ranks of the enemy , its impact on the morale of Allied soldiers can not be overestimated . In July 1943 she debuted the second of the structure adopted by Hitler in January 1942 , Panzer V or ” Panther ” . The tank showed up on the battlefield less than 20 months after the start of work on it. Unfortunately proved the adage : Rush is indicated by catching fleas. Debut of ” Panther ” as well as ” Tiger ” was unsuccessful .

Most of the cars did not reach even the starting positions in Belgorod (place a concentration of German troops preparing for battle on the “Kursk”), fire engines, drivetrains damage caused that a large number of these machines did not participate in the battle, with the hope that Hitler was related to the final destruction of the Russian forces. However, these structural defects were removed, and “Pantera” became the terror of the Allied czołgistów.Dowództwo Allies issued an order prohibiting its armored forces to deal with “Panthers”.Both technically excellent German tanks had one major disadvantage compared to the “T-34” were more difficult to produce, the more “greedy” for raw materials and thus keep them arose, which eventually tipped the scales of victory for the Allied side.

 

 

 

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Italian medium tank – M11/39

November 15th, 2013

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After the Spanish Civil War, where he fought the body “volunteer” army of Italian CTV (Corpo Truppe volontaria) Italian Headquarters issued a letter in which it noted that the CV tanks have not worked in the field as a force that breaks the front and suffered very heavy losses. During the campaign tančík met with Republican manufacture Soviet tanks T-26 and BT-5, in which the Italian crew with rifles and guns caliber 20 mm did not have a chance. Therefore, the authors concluded that the army needed a new tank with thicker armor and stronger weaponry that would provide the opportunity to destroy enemy vehicles.

The new plans, old tanks…

 

At the beginning of 1936 plants Fiat- Anslado created two projects light tank weighing 6.6 tons , armed with a gun caliber 37 millimeters ( 37/26 ) located in the fuselage and two machine guns in the tower . The project lived to fully extend and major changes and 1939 production came dwudziestomilimetrowe tank armed with a gun Breda L6 and a machine gun in the turret , although it was originally supposed to be armed with a short gun Vickers caliber 37 millimeters. This machine was to be reinforced for armored units , cavalry and infantry units as part of the identification of each division during the Second World War. She received important L6 -40 and was used on the front lines in Africa, the Balkans and Russia.In 1937 , the aforementioned report , a project of the vehicle ośmiotonowego named carro di rottura , the tank ” break “, created by the same factories as its predecessors . A new type referred to the then popular in Europe tanks, the so-called class sześciotonowej whose prototype was the British Vickers 6 -Ton . Later renumbered M11/39 (the letter M mean Medio , or ” average ” , but due to the defect and the low potential combat malicious said it was an abbreviation of the name of Mussolini ) , and went into series production in 1938.

 

Tank M11/39 shows Mussolini , representatives of the government and the General Staff of the Royal Army May 16, 1938 for the range in Campi ( Cornigliano Ligure ) . It is designed for use in a possible conflict in the north of Italy , in the region of Carso , north of Trieste. M11/39 was supposed to be infantry support tank , it has had help in attacking and destroying fortifications and defenses , and two machine guns raziłyby the enemy’s infantry . However, war plans and objectives quickly changed , tank – no.During the war came to light construction defects . Well, the designers installed a machine gun turret two Breda , and the hull – antitank gun caliber 47 millimeters. Italians , moreover, adapted as a weapon of your new tank design has the Austrian Böhler , which during the show in 1937 showed a good performance and reliability . Has a tank commander Enrico Serra described as “a little gem ” . It should be noted that since 1938 according to the standards Comando Supremo medium tank is a machine having from 5.5 to 16.5 tonnes in 1940, but these parameters are changed for future design and low weight increased to 8.8 tonnes. In other countries – such as Germany, France, Great Britain and the Soviet Union – the tanks of similar weight was considered light . Until 1938 , even though the alliance of Italy and the Third Reich increasingly tightened , still considered Germany ‘s military doctrine as one of the possible opponents. In 1938 began to change doctrine , based on the experience of other countries, and began work on a strategy of mechanized forces and armor .In 1939, the General Staff assumed to produce 268 tanks, M , L 697 tanks of guns caliber 20 mm and 48 armored cars , but by the end of the year provided one M11/39 tanks , so they had to temporarily use the old machines Fiat 3000 (models 21 and 30) . At the beginning of 1939 ordered another fifty M11/39 , and staff canceled the order, because a draft of a new tank that just passed last test – M13/40 . Unfortunately, these machines are not able to come to the fight faster than in 1940 , because it was ordered until November 16, 1939 year. But it was a big order – once at 400 copies. The tank was indeed the only one fit for fighting machine in the arsenal with which the Italian armored units entered the war , and there were unfortunately too few , so that they can play an important role on the battlefield .

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Technical Description

The first prototype tank M11/39 made in 1937. Chassis system was modeled dog tags on the chassis Vickers , innovation was the location of the tank weapons , two machine guns in the turret and cannon placed hull casemate – sponsonie . In 1938 a second prototype was made with eight wheels instead of six as the first. The suspension is in virtually unchanged form used in the war in all Italian medium tanks and self-propelled departments . On each side of the tank were two sets of trucks with wheels supporting the pendulum suspended , cushioned półeliptycznymi springs .A major difficulty in the operation of a drive based on the diesel engine . Compared to gasoline engines was easier to use and less expensive to operate due to lower fuel consumption when driving off-road in a fairly significant way reduce the risk of fire as a result of hitting the engine required a diesel rather than gasoline. Mounted eight-cylinder liquid-cooled , diesel engine Fiat SPA 8T V V-8 with a capacity of 11 140 m³ and power of 77.3 kW (105 hp ) at 1800 rpm. Transmission had four forward gears and one reverse.Hull construction was conventional – the engine compartment at the rear, fighting compartment in the center , steering to the left. The suspension consisted of two rows of eight with a front wheel drive wheel on each side. Idlers installed in the back. The crew consisted of three men (commander – gunner machine guns , cannon gunner and loader and driver) . The driver’s seat provided on the left side of the hull and slightly offset to the rear in relation to the casemate . Tank Combat weight was 11 175 kg (name M11 , just the weight of the tank meant ) . Tank length was 4.74 meters, width – 2,18 meters, height – 2.3 meters . Armor front hull and turret had a thickness of 30 mm , sides – 14.5 millimeters , the sides of the tower – 8 millimeters , floor, ceiling hull and turret – 6 millimeters. Armor plating tank – unlike German tanks – they were not welded, but combined with rivets , which in the case of a direct hit will guarantee their immediate cracking .As a main armament gun finally selected L/40 Vickers – Terni 37/40 caliber 37 millimeters ( with reserves of 84 rounds) and two machine guns Breda 38 in the tower ( with a supply of 2808 rounds) . Casemate has been installed in the right side of the fuselage , which immediately heralded reduction in the level fields of fire . The cannon can be moved at a range of 30 ° in both directions , vertically and from -8 ° to 12 °. The barrel length of 1.48 meters projectile gave the up to 640 meters per second , yielding 4 km range and the ability to armor penetration a thickness of 34 millimeters at a distance of 910 meters . Guns in the tower can be moved horizontally and 360 º vertically and from -13 º to +23 º . Wystrzeliwały 350 rounds per minute. Installing a cannon in the fuselage turned out to be a big disadvantage , because the crew had to maneuver around the vehicle to catch the enemy in a pinch.M11/39 reached a maximum speed of 33 km / h on the road and 13 km / h in the field. Tank located 145-180 liters of fuel would provide a maximum range of 200 kilometers machines on the road or 120 km on the ground. Tank could overcome the walls to a height of 80 centimeters , beards ( water hazards ) to 100 centimeters and trenches ( trenches ) to 200 centimeters. The hull is equipped with the access hatch to the tank on the left side and a hatch at the top of the fuselage on the right , under the conditions unbearable heat of North Africa flaps were open almost all the time . The engine could be reached by the two large flaps on the top of the shell. The tank was adjusted to install an RF radio 1 CA, but there were a few copies. For transportation of machines at a greater distance from the Strafurini engineer designed a platform with a weight of 4.95 tons.Ordered only a hundred pieces M11/39 . Production ran from 1 June to 31 August 1939 , and was suspended. The first produced copies sent to third Panzer Regiment stationed near Bologna. To immediately repair and possibly even during production make further adjustments to the design , with the first series of tanks was sent technicians from companies Ansaldo . It was assumed that M-type machines replace as soon as possible tankette L3/35 and the Fiat 3000 tanks were obsolete , and that will be the primary tank of a newly created armored divisions : 131 Centauro , 132 Ariete and 133 Littorio .

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The use of combat

New Carro Armato M11/39 tanks assigned to test one of the company’s 32 Ariete Armoured Division Regiment in August 1939 . In the same month the company M11 (twelve pieces) took part in the maneuvers . Crew training on new machines held in Bracciano near Rome. In July 1940 , 72 copies were sent to Libya in the composition of the Ariete Armoured Division and the 24 – to Italian East Africa. Four items were in Italy. Road combat battalions equipped with the M11 did not cover , however, the fate of Ariete Division .Tanks were not used to form regiments as forces ‘ offensive in bulk and by surprise “, as envisaged in the rules of the Royal Armored Forces . What right have formed two battalions ( I and II Battaglione Carri M11 ), composed of 4 Tank Regiment ( 4th Reggimento Fanteria Carrista ), but not for long. M11/39 tanks are divided into separate units – armored columns that supported the assault force Egypt . The tanks supplied to East Africa formed two companies of the twelve machines. One went to the Italian troops stationed in Somalia , and the other – to Eritrea . It quickly turned out that the tanks were operating in small groups without a radio department and mounted in the fuselage completely do not work on the battlefield. Commander of the lack of communication attempt to resolve temporarily – each unit M11 Radio transported on a motorcycle with a sidecar . Not only that, Italy lacked trained staff, rolling stock repair and equipment to repair damaged machinery.Ariete Division – and the two battalions of the M11/39 composed of 32 Panzer – Regiment landed at the port of Benghazi in July. August 5 arrived at Sidi Azeis . Each battalion consisted of 31 tanks, divided between the two companies composed of three platoons of four tanks and a company command with five tanks (Italian armored division in 1940 consisted of bersalierów regiment , artillery and tank regiment , who had four battalions – together 164 tankette ) . They went into action when September 13, 1940 the 10th Army Gen. Bertie attacked a border position and stopped the British positions at Sidi Barrani , eighty kilometers in depth Egypt. The operation commander Marshal Rodolfo Graziani . Two battalions of tanks M11/39 significantly strengthen the Italian defense as to their arrival one armored infantry support were tančík L3/35 . Battalions M11 incorporated into XXI Corps 10 Army . Italians in Libya had 326 tanks, however, were divided between three bodies , one of which ( with three infantry divisions ) had 142 tanks. The fighting took part in November and December , when the British counteroffensive launched under the code name ” Compass ” ( the night of 8 to 9 December ) .2 The battalion was completely destroyed during the first day of the British counter-offensive . December 9 meeting with Matilda II tanks of the 7th Royal Armoured Regiment Lieutenant Colonel Jerrama at the Battle of Nibeiwą . M11/39 Italian battalion was part of the improvised armored unit commanded by General Pietro Malettiego – Reggruppamento Maletti – sformowanej ad hoc of the 2500 Libyan soldiers and two battalions of tanks – 35 tanks M11/39 and 45 tankettes L3/35 . British attack began at five in the morning the forces of infantry and armored vehicles . At seven , however , after a strong artillery preparation , the action came 48 Matilda II tanks , which the resistance stawiły M11 tanks guarding the main line of defense fortified camp. The result of the battle was to be expected . Caliber cannon shells 37 millimeters thick ricocheted from the UK , although it managed to destroy seven tanks, but the Italians have lost as many as 23 of the 31 Tank Battalion . General Maletti die cut a series of machine gun fire . Many tanks were destroyed in less than a minute. Acute resistance artillery appeared , but raise the 70 millimeters thick armor was difficult. Able to withdraw some crews of tanks and infantry Libyan , who was trying to break through the Italian lines . Malettiego Group ceased to exist , and the attacker gained some tankettes M11 and L3 .Already divided into smaller columns M11/39 try to stop and shield the retreat of Italian troops in the Battle of Beda Fomm composed of troops commanded by generals Bergonzoliego and Bariniego . The fight was in vain because of the weak armament and supply problems . I Battalion became part of the Special Tank Brigade ( Brigata Corazzata Speciale ) , sformowanej in Tobruk with M11/39 tanks ( one full battalion and the remains of a shattered into Nibeiwą ) and new M13/40 ( battalion – 35) and two -parent battalions tankettes L3 / 35th The battle took place on 5-7 February 1941 year. The Italians were routed , lost 48 tanks destroyed and 53 machines gained , the British and lost … four tanks! Several vehicles were captured by British troops , when oil was over and were fixed . M11/39 tanks captured were later used by the Australian 6th Divisional Cavalry Regiment , the machine ‘s squadron was formed called Ringo . Two other squads – Rabbit and Wombat – equipped with captured M13/40 . Interestingly, it was the first and only medium tanks across the Australian Army .Italian armored units have failed to adapt or their machines , or tactics to African conditions . Admittedly, the armored unit trained to defend – or attack – on a possible African frontline fighting jam at Beda Fomm . Most of the loss was due to failure on the battlefield, which could not be repaired ( or you can download from the battle damaged planes ) and tanks had to be placed somewhere . Escaped complete destruction Division Ariete , since it deployed in the back to use to attack the British przełamującego positions , an attack that never came .The two companies sent to Italian East Africa were destroyed during the British offensive in the spring of 1941. After arriving in the previous year M11 companies grouped in Compagnia Speciale Capri M. This unit , together with four companies of tankettes L3 (XX , XXI , XXII and XXIII ) has created a unique grouping armored trzystupięćdziesięciotysięcznej Italian army – Raggruppamento Corazzato Africa Orientale . 27 July 1940, staff of the Duke D’ Aosta has decided to attack the British Somaliland . Took command of the operation , General Nesi , the commander of the Eastern Sector Italian East Africa. The attack was set 35,000 troops , of which less than five thousand were Italians . Units of the metropolis is mainly an infantry battalion of the division Granatieri di Savoia, two battalions of the ” Black Shirts “, M11/39 medium tank company , the company L3/35 light tanks and two squadrons of armored cars Lancia Ansaldo MA and Fiat 611 Attackers were divided into three columns . The first column consisted of general Bertoldiego colonial infantry battalions ( 42 , 58 , 62 , 66 , 140 , 143 ) , four infantry battalions and two Somali native irregular units generally referred to as Comic (so- called irregular troops will all and formed an ad hoc basis for a specific task or activity in the region ) . In the center of the troops that had attacked British forces under the command of Brigadier Chater , he became General De Simone . The three entered the formation of colonial infantry regiments , the company twelve M11/39 tanks (whose support was decisive in the conquest of the region) , plutonium tankettes L3/35 and squadron of armored cars Fiat 611 , and two heavy coastal artillery batteries . The group also joined the colonial infantry battalions ( 20th , 39th , 49th , 37th, 64th , 83rd , 38th , 40th and 142nd ), group Dubatów ( Gruppo Bande ) , infantry units PAI ( Polizia dell ‘Africa Italiana ) and PAI motorcycle company . The third column consisted of General Bertello while first and 2 group of infantry on camels , 2 , 3 , 4 and 6 Gruppo Bubatów , 101 and 102 Colonial Infantry Battalion and 3rd Coastal Defence Battalion . As reserves are the third , fourth , ninth and 10 Colonial Infantry Battalion and nine artillery batteries colonial camel .From storage tanks Raggruppamento Corazzato Africa also took part in the fighting in January 1941 with the British group Gazelle , which, together with the squadron of tanks Matilda “B” 4 Royal Tank Regiment moved to Keren and was soon at the entrance to the city Agordat , which has recently been acquired by Italian forces . Italians dug in the hills surrounding the city. Kept in reserve a certain number of tanks M11 and tankettes L3 . British strike began at night on January 2 . Indian infantry offensive , however, failed to cross the Italian line . Attacks reiterates to January 30 , still with the same result – the attacker was in default under the fire of machine guns and artillery. January 31 started to attack British tanks , which under the cover of infantry quickly broke through the defenses. In this situation, the Italian command decided to quit the counterattack own armored forces – nine tanks M11 and two tankette L3 . They failed to even damage the attackers Matild , not to mention their destruction . All Italian tanks were destroyed. Soon it was occupied city.

 

Bibliography :

Cazzani F. P., I corazzati Italiani Della Seconda Guerra Mondiale, Roma 1976
Cloutier P., Regio Esercito: The Italian Royal Army in Mussolini’s wars 1935–1943, Lexington 2010
Dyer P., Carro Armato M11/39 – 1937/40, [w:] “Bellona MVR”, nr 24
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Pejčoch I., Obrnĕná Technika, Itálie Spanĕlsko 1919–1945, t.9, Praga 2009
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