The history of the airplane:
Mikoyan – Gurevich MiG -31 is the largest and heaviest fighter in the world. It is also the only interceptor with a real event. Although outwardly similar to its predecessor , the MiG – 25PD , in fact it is a completely new design . In the arsenal of the Russian armed forces have always been of great importance heavy long range interceptor aircraft – a class which does not occur in other countries. This is due largely to geographical particularities of Russia, an important szególności its vast and desolate midnight. Network of airports there are very rare , as the positions of radar and anti-aircraft missiles . Starting from the 50’s – the period of intensive development of nuclear weapons and their means of delivery , the Russians , fearing a massive hit U.S. strategic aviation , aircraft developed capable of capturing long-term patrol bomber and the distant approaches to the sheathed objects. The creation of the MiG -31 had a crucial influence U.S. strategic bombers AMSA project , including the Rockwell B- 1B ” Lancer ” , which could , flying at low altitude , make far-reaching strategic impact . Thus, before the new Russian interceptor was challenged to engage targets flying as a large and extremely low altitude . The need for rapid response to the threat required a very high speed flight . In this regard, Air Defense wanted to have a plane reaching result oscillating in the range until 3500-4000 km / h The new machine should also be able to operate autonomously , have a long range flight , a very modern avionics . Also requires the ability to work in a grouping through a system of mutual combat , efficient data transfer . At that time, used in linear units interceptors TU -128 with a range of 2565 km and a practical maximum speed of Mach 1.57 and MiG -25, a maximum speed of Mach 2.83 rows and 1285 km -range supersonic did not meet in a zadowający these conditions and, therefore, could not capture the low-flying B- 1B bomber , because it was created to fight the machines rather a B – 52G and B- 58A , and therefore the objectives of fairly large and flying high. People started to think about the combined advantages of both of these aircraft , so the fighter who is also a rapid and far-reaching at the same time . The challenge has taken several Soviet engineering teams . OKB Sukhoi created interceptor variant of the SU- 24M , which, however, did not meet expectations , because he was too slow and had a small climb . Tupolev ‘s proposal – TU -138 was a modification TU -128 . The aircraft received more ( dog tags ) powerful engines , thinner wings and larger supply of fuel . However, the speed of which was only reached 2400 km / h Also the coverage left a lot to be desired , so that the project finally rejected. Therefore, in 1965, work began on the TU -148 , which no longer had much in common with the TU -128 . A series of projects TU -148 combined cruising speed Mach 3 , but different forms of aerodynamics bezogonowiec , duck, variable geometry wing and double delta . At that time, A. Mikoyan led the team at the time the design work on the various developments of the MiG -25 (prototype E -155 ) , including the E -158 aircraft with variable geometry wings, a maximum speed of 3500 km / h and a range of 5000 km and subsonic supersonic 2500 km . In 1967 he created another project , E – 155M , which is a development of E -158 . Thicket ideas, and optional voltage between design bureaus broke the CPSU Central Committee resolution of 24 May 1968, the recommended final team A. Mikoyan over the continuation of work on your project E – 155MP . The development of complex capture S- 155M Tax enterprises commissioned them . Tikhomirov and Tax Fazotron , a new weapon system – Wympieł plants . In working on the next jiffy -31 designers came from the projects mentioned earlier E -158 and E – 155M . E -158 is a far-reaching development of the MiG – 25P , equipped with a variable geometry wings . Maximum speed was to be more than 3500 km / h, the maximum range – up to 5000 km, and when flying at supersonic speed 2500 km . Since 1967, work on the E -158 continued in the form of E – 155M , which also has a variable geometry wings . However, unlike its predecessor used a single vertical stabilizer and wings of a smaller area . The project also developed a plane striking E – 155MF ( de facto competitor SU- 24M ) , and reconnaissance aircraft E -155 -MR , but none of them will never implemented . Ultimately version of shock and reconnaissance bomber abandoned in favor of the SU- 24M . Sam the E – 158m lasted quite a long time and they started to carry out the first details of its construction . However, it was rejected because during the tests the MiG -23 by the Russians that the variable geometry wings of fighter aircraft is a dead end , in which ” they stuffed up ” under the influence of fashion on the F- 111B . Variable geometry wings are actually difficult to use, have a small TBO , and not enough volume airframe for the necessary fuel and equipment . On the E – 155M failed to achieve the desired rate of climb and ceiling practical . Another version of the E – 155M had an increased wing area , merging smoothly with the fuselage . The control system was to be an active electric , but that designers Mikoyan then found to be too complex and expensive , and thus the project collapsed . In 1969, work began on the prototype E – 155MP , which is the ” hybrid ” E – 155M and E -158 . After weighing all the pros and cons of moving definitively abandoned wing . The E – 155MP again reverted to the MiG -25 airframe with fixed trapezoid wing, making only local improvements. After overcoming this difficulty another problem was the choice of engine. Initially, Air Defense wanted to make a new fighter was even faster than the MiG- 25P, which was already the fastest serial fighter in the world that exceed breakneck speed of 3200 km / h In the E – 155P planned a speed of 3700-4000 km / h motor R- 15BF -300 . However, R- 15B300 engine of the MiG – 25P , characterized by a low compression ratio matched to cruising speed 2500 km / h, is extraordinarily inefficient at subsonic speeds . Meanwhile, the new machine also required a long range at subsonic speed . It was necessary , therefore, to choose a drive unit, which will be economic at subsonic speed . Provide a turbofan engine . But to make matters worse for the army did not want to give up speeds of over 3000 km / h It turned out to have unrealistic : turbofan engine thrust by increasing the air speed increases slowly and the existing level of technology to achieve with such engines speed 4000 km / h was impossible. Finally, the army agreed to stay at the speed of the MiG- 25P , or 3000 km / h, and for the future MiG -31 was ordered in the band Paul Vl turbo engines D- 30F -6 string without afterburner 93.16 kN ( 9500 lb ) with afterburner 152.0 kN ( 15,500 lb ) . So in 1972, the final design was chosen E – 155MP aircraft , including airframe modified MiG- 25P with two engines dwuprzepływowymi D- 30F -6 . While maintaining the overall layout , production technology and the size of the MiG- 25P, E – 155MP aircraft received a double crew cabin located in tandem . The wings were added in the przykadłubowej inflows and nasal flaps . The enlarged area of flaps and ailerons , which now occupied almost the entire span of the airfoil . Changed the aircraft main landing gear on bicycles, placing before him airbrakes . Increased stiffness of the wings and also the air intakes , which was to allow supersonic flight at speeds near the ground . Much has changed construction materials were less steel and more lighter aluminum alloys and titanium. On September 16, 1975 , Alexander Fedotov raised in the air the first prototype of the MiG -31. Attempts to capture all of the complex S- 155M was launched in May 1977 at a resort in Achtubińsku . In the same period, the U.S. satellite reconnaissance raportujr shooting down the drill- class maneuvering missile flying at an altitude of 60m at a distance of 20km by a rocket fired from the “modified MiG -25 ” flying at an altitude of 6000 m in the course of the trial not without casualties . September 20, 1979 , Mr. Ostapienko and L. Popov successfully ejected after an engine failure on the first serial aircraft , 011 ‘, and April 4, 1984 for an airplane , 201 ” died A. Fedotov and V. Zaitsev . Attempts to capture the complex S- 155M was completed in September 1980 and May 6, 1981 , he was formally admitted to the Military Air Defense Fighter USSR. Series production of the MiG -31 was launched before the end of testing, and operational readiness of the first MiG -31 reached in 1983. This is the toughest fighter in the world, with a full internal weapons and fuel load weighs 41000 kg . Just like the MiG – 25P, characterized by a very low agility , both vertically and horizontally . Due to the MiG -31 is not predisposed to conduct air combat maneuvering . In fact, it is a platform for radar and missiles , but about the actual value of combat , in fact, determines mentioned , ultramodern complex of S- 150M . Its theme is fire control system RP- 31 Veils , which includes a slot antenna with electronic scanning phase N -007 , termonamiernik 8TK , data link and APD -518 guidance system for target 5U15K . The efficiency of the entire system is primarily determined first used in combat aircraft which went into series production , innovative design wspominanej slot antenna . It has a very large range of both search and tracking . It can at the same time advise rocket targets located above and beyond. Veils , however, was very heavy, its mass exceeds ton, so only a carrier could be just the MiG -31. However, its weight and size offset great features : tracking 10 targets at once , four homing missiles long range simultaneously. The RP- 31 was developed under the influence of American work on radar AN/AWG-9 for the F -14A ” Tomcat ” , able to simultaneously track six goals and guiding the missile is not AIM- 54B ” Phoenix ” . Hence the idea of multi-channel Russians decided to implement the system ‘s own interceptor weapons . It was not known , however, that guides the missile radar AN/AWG-9 multiple targets at the same time provided that they are within walking distance of each other. Zasłonowi put the task much more difficult , because he had a track up to 10 targets at once , regardless of where they are , one could fly in the stratosphere , and the other just above the ground , and yet both have been fired . In turn, the struggle for shorter distances are IR guided R- 40T , R- 60, for which the fire control system termonamiernik added . Russian doctrine involved the use of interceptors guidance on the target aircraft from the ground, the ground-based radar . A communication system 5U15K pilot at all times to receive the necessary commands to complete. Only the immediate proximity to the pilot establishes radar contact with the target and fires the rocket. Such tactics were also used for the MiG -25 and TU -128 , but the results are not comparable . In Migue -31 emphasizes the possibility of autonomous action , without the support of the ground. With data łączom APD -518 planes can very effectively work together in a group. Another important element of combat effectiveness MiG -31 ‘s armament . It consists of long range missiles R- 33E ( in later versions of the R- 33S ) , and small to medium-range R- 40T , R- 60, directed infrared . Aircraft carries four R- 33E in the recesses under the fuselage . They are guided in two stages , first the autopilot , and then half- actively by the fire control system . Rocket R- 33E has a range of 160km and can be sent to a target at 10 km above or below the fighter flying at speeds up to 3000 km / h and maneuvering of overloads to 4g . The rocket has a very high percentage of accuracy , about 60-70% of the target shooting maneuvering for maximum distance . MiG -31 can fly at high altitude cruise speed has 2.35 ( 2500 km / h) and has a maximum speed of 2.83 (3,000 km / h) . Because of the warm-up time design cruising speed exceeding 2.65 are limited to 21 minutes – which is not too severe restriction , if you remember that the airplane defeats at this time 1000 km ! At low altitude MiG -31 can fly at a speed of 1500 km / h Ferrying range of 3300 km. More important parameter to destroy boundary is 720 km on the fly at a speed of 2.35 Ma , and 0.85 Ma at 1200 km or 1400 km with no additional fuel tanks or 2200 km with a single refueling in the air. The ceiling is 20600m practical , fully armed . The West first rumors about the new aircraft have arrived in 1976 along with an escape to Japan Victor Belenki on Migue – 25P . For a long time the NATO- wscy analysts thought the MiG -31 for the next version of the MiG – 25P . In 1981, the U.S. Department of Defense published the first , basically accurate, hypothetical figure MiG- 31bis , and autumn 1985 years the aircraft was first photographed by a Norwegian two-seat F- 16B of the Barents Sea . The code NATO MiG -31 was named the ” Foxhound ” .