Description of the structure:
MiG -31 is a heavy, twin-engine , two-seat fighter aircraft built in the classical system with redoubled vertical tail . The structure of the plane is made of stainless steels , titanium and aluminum alloys , the materials are used depending on the temperature distribution derived structures on the fly at speeds naddźwiękowymi . Despite these overall silhouette of the MiG – 25P, MiG -31 airframe is heavily modified. First of all construction materials have changed . So also participate steel decreased from 80 % to 50 % , titanium is 16 % and 30 % by weight of aluminum construction. This was due to better , after many years of service the MiG – 25P, identifying the most vulnerable high temperature of the airframe and the more the selective use of heavy metals. Fuselage the front oval , flattened on the sides for the air inlets of a broad cross-section close to the right angle . For the convenience of operation is divided into the front and rear . Front hull is made in the form of a conical shield of a dielectric material , which was placed at a fixed radar antenna with a diameter of 0.3m thickness ok.1.1 me , the weight is about 300kg . The antenna includes radar, electronic components weighing more than 700kg and a front compartment osprzętowy . On the left side of the front cabin is retractable refueling probe in the air. Under the fuselage , before landing gear are air brakes . The wing leading edge slant of 41 degrees , and the trailing edge of 9.30 degree are short and wide, has an area of 61.2 m On the upper surface of each wing ‘s aerodynamic comb . Slotted flaps span 2,682 m , each tilted by 30 degrees. Darts are spread at 1.7 m Swing up to 20 degrees . With the additional stiffening girder wings , ailerons can be extended to the end of the airfoil. The four- wing leading edge flaps tilted 13 degrees nose down. Panel horizontal tail span is 8.74 m , respectively , 50.22 degree skew angle and height of the negative -1.25 degrees. Can be rotated clockwise or differentially for longitudinal control in flight at high speed. In the first case the deflection of the tail is +9 / -30 degrees , in the second +1.5 degree. The tail surfaces doubled , parted to the side of 8 degrees , a slant 54 degrees and surface 15.6 m Headset with an area of 2.12 m, tilted 25 degrees. Under the rear part of the fuselage by two combs aerodynamic surface of 3.0 m , diverging laterally at an angle of 12 degrees . The control system MiG – 31 is a classic hydraulic . Main Chassis MiG -31 is an original design. Instead of a single wheel with a diameter of 1300mm with MIGA -25 uses two smaller, KT -175 , measuring 950x300mm dog tags a common wheelchair. Wheel alignment is not typical , as the rear wheel does not move in the wake of the front , but a bit on the outside. This configuration was chosen for two reasons: to reduce ground pressure and because of the lack of space in the fuselage . Chassis front is doubled , the wheels KT -176 660x200mm sizes . Track of the main landing gear is 3,638 m and 7,113 m base chassis is equipped with oil- air cushioning . The power unit is based on two turbofan jet engines Solovyev D- 30F -6 of the 93.2kN each ( with afterburner maximum 152kN ) . Fuel consumption of the motor is nominally 0.72kg/kGh , and afterburner 1.9kg/kGh . The degree of bypass engine is 3:1 , the mass of 2415kg . Engine consists of a five low-pressure compressor compression ratio 3.0, the ten- high pressure compressor compression ratio 7.05 – both axial compressors placed on concentric shafts wsp61nie the corresponding turbine . – Annular combustion chamber , Cruising , with 12 injectors . Two-stage high-pressure turbine with blades cooled , two-stage turbine fan . The turbine kt6rą mixing chamber by exhaust gases from the air part of the low-pressure compressor enters the afterburner where it is an additional injection . Afterburner is finished supersonic nozzle with adjustable hydraulic system with an internal cross-section . The outer casing fixed nozzle geometry. Controls the motor placed underneath the front. Supply of fuel in the tanks inside the hull and ballast vertical is 16350kg . At the outer booms pylons can be mounted fuel tanks with a capacity receivables at 2500l . Plane is equipped with a complex combat system S- 155M . Its key elements are essentially : – Fire control system RP- 31 curtains fitted with a slot antenna with an electronic system scan phase N -007 with a range of 260km to seek equal to the effective reflection surface 16m , and the range of automatic tracking purposes oscillating in the limit of 160 km in the front hemisphere . For the rear hemisphere these numbers are 90 and 70 km . Target tracking range in size from 3m hitting the front hemisphere is 90km. The screen of the radar station at the same time can be a lot of goals, of which 10 are automatically tracked and digital on-board computer Argon -K selects one four most dangerous and independent guides to them four air -to-air missiles R- 33E . Viewing angle of the radar station curtains are 70 degrees azimuth , 70 degrees upward and 60 degrees downward. Curtains RP- 31 is the first in the world , and so far the only one in a fighter jet , used operationally radar station with an antenna with a phase scanning module . It was used because of its ability to continuous irradiation , and in practice allows the simultaneous guidance of missiles for the purpose of very far apart . Electronic scanning radar picked up a new level of demands on the speed of the transmission and processing of information. To meet these requirements in the RP- 31 curtains for the first time that has been used . multiplex signal transmission and processing of data just by a digital computer Argon -15 . So the new salary was so complicated that the required increase of operator crew weapons. ( see it really worth it ) The advantages of a modern radar scanning phase is also more resistant to interference and lack of moving mechanical parts , which have always been the source of a large part of the failure. On the other hand , such radars are much more expensive and require substantially more powerful computers to control . As mentioned earlier, the first generation radiolocator curtains was also very heavy, weighing over 1000 kg , of which there were 270 kg antenna . Curtains was the first and to the appearance of the AN/APG-77 , designed for przysłego F- 22 ” Raptor “, the only one in the world of hunting radar with electronic scanning . – Ciepłonamiernik 8TP , the antenna placed just below the nose the MiG -31. The marching position is half- hidden in the hull and combat position is lowered down , also at a speed of 3000 km / h The pilot uses it in the conduct of secret (or passive ) monitoring the airspace and dp aim when shooting with infrared guided missiles R- 40T and R- 60M . Termonamiernika 8TK angle is at 60 degrees to the left and 6 / -13 degrees vertically . Distance detection of fighter aircraft flying without afterburner is about 40 km ( from the rear hemisphere ) . However, if the enemy uses afterburner, the range increases to about 60km. Ciepłonamiernik can work with radar and get you the preliminary indication of its purpose. A typical way to work all Russian fighters operating in the country’s air defense system is called. komendowe guidance on target , where the plane is then under the control of the land and is remotely guided to the target by ground-based system Wozduch -1M or Luch -2 . It was only in the final phase of the attack , the fighter was derived in a good position to attack , the pilot takes the initiative includes on-board radar and fires rockets . To receive and decode commands from ground-based guidance systems MiG -31 was mentioned 5U15K equipment . Since the MiG -31 Capable of operating in regions where there is a continuous field of radar or radio-navigation systems , which is why the MiG -31 as the first interceptor in the USSR does not require constant assistance from the ground and can be used as an indication półautonomicznie to the earth is temporary or even disposable . The S – 155M yourself then generates a command to search for . It is worth noting that the possibility of autonomous operwania are greater in the case of group operations . In this kind of action six machines MiG -31 flies in the mutual distance of up to 200 km , and their on-board radar scour including a strip of up to 1200 km. Co-operation of aircraft in the group allows automatic exchange apparatus APD -518 and a device to determine the relative position of RadikałOWK , so that the rate of the tactical situation in the operator’s cabin MiG -31 contains information about the location of all fighters in both groups , as well as all detected the targets. Leader of the group is to coordinate the activities of the individual machines. Target detected by one of the aircraft can be shot down if necessary by another MiG -31. What’s more, the MiG -31 can also be used to co-operation with other , lighter fighters , such as the MiG -29 , assigning them targets , and by the way the crew of the MiG -31 alone can make the attack. MiG -31 could advise in this mode, three other machines. – Navigation serve on Migue -31 two systems . For distances up to 2000 km running Tropic , analogous to the west Loran and with precision 130- 1300m . At ranges from 2 to 10,000 km crew MiG -31 uses a system of routes , corresponding to the western Omega , determining the position of an aircraft with an accuracy of 1800-3600 m modules are adapted to operate in areas without continuous terrestrial network and under conditions of magnetic anomalies far North . The MiG -31 armament consists of permanently installed cannon GSz -6 -23 (there are variants of an airplane without a plot and the latest versions can quickly dismantle land on the ground) . It is a 23mm caliber gun sześciolufowe the rate of maksymalmej 6000 rounds per minute , with a supply of cartridges equal to 260 units. The basic equipment suspended aircraft guided missiles are long-range guided półaktywnie radiolokacyjnie R- 33E , placed in a specially adapted hull of the AKU -33 launchers , pushed back from him before firing pyrotechnic projectile with a parallel linking mechanism . R- 33E missiles are specially designed for the MiG -31 ( tried it later on other aircraft , including but not limited to SU-27M/SU-35 ) . They have a mass of about 630 kg and reach of 120 km . Later versions of the MiG -31 can carry R- 33S missile with a range increased to 160 km and with a modernized system of guidance with a greater range search . MiG- 31 can also carry two underwing launchers , known for the MiG – 25P, guided missiles, medium-range infrared R- 40T or R- 40TD , or four short-range missiles R- 60M . Then the plane adapted to carry more modern missiles R -73 ( the two on the bar ), and R -77 . R -73 missile is the primary aircraft used by the Commonwealth of Independent States in the struggle to maneuver , and R – 60M is currently used primarily as a defensive armament of aircraft other than hunting . Roll the MiG -31 is a two-seater , with the crew seats in tandem . It is encapsulated automatically after closing covers. Shields cabins are opened independently of the rear hydraulic cylinders , pyrotechnic charges shot down in an emergency. The rear cabin is equipped with a retractable periscope . Pilots take their seats in the cabin in special air-conditioned garments compensation , similar to space suits , ensuring the pilot to maintain the necessary conditions for the operation of a wide range of pressures and temperatures outside . Initially, the pilots were sitting on chairs KM- 1M , and later built the machine already installed with a much more modern models seat K- 36D class 0/ 0, to ensure the safe to leave the plane by two crew members in the full range of speeds and altitudes .