The history of the aircraft
Russian MiG -29 ” Fulcrum ” (or ” support” , in Russian – ” tochka opori “) has been designed and flown in the late 70’s as a supersonic , single-seat fighter for the Russian Air Force to replace the already completely obsolete MiG -21 ” fishbed ” and gradually aging MiG -23 ” flogger ” . Together with a heavy interceptor MiG -31 ” Foxhound ” is the latest , and probably last projects at the same time the Soviet (now Russian ) Mikoyan design office . The most important task we put on new fighter was the capture and destruction of all air cell at a distance of from 30 to about 160 km at any altitude , all-weather and the strong radio- interference . The other task was treated marginally , because the assumptions of Soviet military doctrine MiG -29 was supposed to be only a slight fighter front , having used to patrol designated areas of air , defense against attack from the air major facilities (eg airports or clusters OJSK ) and additional escorts machines SU -25 ground attack and tactical bombers, SU -24 , as well as air superiority goes . Therefore, the basic version of the MiG -29 had only limited opportunities to attack the cell naziemncyh . Thus, only the later, more advanced versions of ” ” have been optimized for the destruction of both desktop and mobile cell using a new , more precise weapons . In the late 60’s the Soviet army command launched a program to build an air-superiority fighter similar to the U.S. program of advanced tactical fighter ATF (Advanced Tactical Fighter ), which contributed to the U.S. prototype fighter aircraft F-15 and F -16 . Modern constructions American had a big impact on projects Soviet design offices . Indeed , this period brought fundamental changes in their views on the concept of the next generation of fighter aircraft . Contributed to the results observed in both the struggle in many local conflicts around the world , as well as gradually emerging on the horizon of new technological opportunities . Soviet fighter program to build a perspective front – ” Perspektivnyj Frontowoj Istrebitiel ” or PFI was launched in full swing in 1970. As I mentioned earlier , the new design was to deny used if a completely outdated in comparison with Western structures , fighters MiG -21 and MiG -23 aircraft and air defense front . Already in 1971, the program was divided into two separate projects . The first program of construction of a large air-superiority fighter , known in Russian as ” Tyazholyj PFI ” (where ” tyazholij ” means “heavy” ) commissioned the design office imnienia PO Sukhoi . Extensive efforts soon resulted in a prototype fighter SU -27 , which broadly describe in another article . The construction of a light fighter front ( ” Legkij PFI ” ) commissioned office A. Mikoyan . Both aircraft , based on a similar concept aerodynamic , were to be completed. The design team was led by the engineer R. Belijakova , -assisted by A. Czumanienkę , V. and M. Waldenberga Lavrowa . The result of the project was the development program, one of the best fighters in the world – the MiG -29 , later dubbed by experts from NATO code ” Fulcrum ” . New lightweight fighter was to be able to operate from makeshift airstrips and take operations to Winning the advantage in the air directly over the region of the war , as well as attack aircraft and escorting important military guard . Proper design work began in 1974 , which resulted in the first 14 of a total of 19 prototypes. Prototypes of the airplane determined sequentially numbered 9-01 , 9-02 … to 9-11 , followed by a second series of 9-12 to 9-15 . It is worth noting that the other four were still on the proverbial drawing board . Work on the next fighter got delayed because of the constantly mounting difficulties . Initially most trouble caused engines and electronic equipment . So, in order not to increase the delay , it was decided to apply the transitional components of the MiG – 23M . This affected radar station RP- 23M ” Sapphire ” and the ejection seat KM- 1M. In practice, the first prototype , assembled at the beginning of 1977, was the only study of the airframe . The first copy was flown on October 6, 1977 , in the center of the test flights in Ramenskoye by the head of the factory test pilots Alexander Fedotov , in mid-November, one of the prototypes was photographed by an American spy satellite . Despite the many concerns of the entire design team from plants MAPO Mikoyan first flight was very successful. Further extensive tests have shown quite remarkable performance of the machine in flight. Despite the failure of modern flight control system of ” fly-by -wire” , mainly because of the belief that it will reduce the performance of the machine (or perhaps because Soviet work on systems of this type were at that time much less sophisticated than those conducted in the U.S.) , the plane turned out to be surprisingly agile, much more than its American counterpart, the F-16 . Used entirely mechanical control system required for relatively few attempts , as opposed to a complex system of air inlets in the larger part intakes under the wings , closed and adjusted automatically ,dog tags and can pięcioklapowe auxiliary inlet slot on the upper surfaces of wings influx . Already during the first flights A.Fiedotow noticed that the machine capable of carrying out such tight corners at the same time proved to be very easy to fly . The second prototype took to the air in July 1978 . Due to engine failure executed two prototypes (the first wrecked 07.15.1978 , the second – 31.10.1980 ) , but after a rigorous error correcting other machinery continued test flights . Soon to intensive tests also included the famous pilot of drubiego – Valery J.Menickiego . The aircraft uses innovative at that time , wing band, the aerodynamic properties comparable with variable geometry wings , but having a much simplified design . These wings , with the front flap , described the machine provide excellent aerodynamic performance , excellent maneuverability , stability and controllability at all speeds and angles of attack possible . After receiving all the data nezbędnych decided to build a total of 21 copies of the pre- series aircraft , intended to serve to intensify the conduct of the trials and ostarecznych modification. They come in a much wider avionics , but it was not yet the target configuration . After obtaining satisfactory results at the institute NII – WWS – complex decision-making with a view to accepting the present inventory of air , the plane was sent for testing state- liiga center . In a very short time, even during the final testing , in 1982 it was decided to start production of the MiG -29 . It was a time when for the last few years were in the service of the operational F- 16A / B and F- 15A . Early production version of the MiG – 29A , because it marked the first variants of standard ( It is worth noting that the production finally accepted a proposal for a prototype Izwiedije 9-12 ) was almost identical to the pre-production aircraft . The most important adjustment consisted of zastosowaniou K- 36DM seat that is designed for enterprise ” Zvezda ” and ultimately destined for the space shuttle ” Buran ” . This chair , with a very high specification , is used to this day in most Russian combat aircraft . In addition, the aircraft also fitted with radar target N -010 ” Topaz ” , which is part of the RPK -27. Radar is designed specifically for Migue – 29A , was one of the Soviet Union pierwszch radiolokatorów use to detect and track airborne Doppler effect . Currently it is estimated that the technology used in the original N -010 is based in part on solutions derived from the West. The benchmark for the design of this system was probably the APG -65 radar with F- 15A / B. The various devices included in the optical- electronic sighting system , including the radar station was mentioned , as well as used in aircraft ciepłonamiernik can operate individually , but generally are used as a single complex , which could follow the 10 cell and tailor measures to their disposal . Normally , to reduce the probability of detection , passive measures are applied . Only when they are ineffective, the active devices are used . MiG- 29A was the first Soviet aircraft , which reduced and condensed amount of information coming into the remote control . Current Issues systuację combat display shows the ILS -31 multi-purpose mirrored by the projector . MiG- 29A , unlike many previous Soviet design, is also characterized by significantly improved visibility from the cab. As mentioned earlier , the plane was very agile – it bends the rays of the majority of the flight is about ten percent less than the U.S. F -16A / B and F- 16C / D. Accelerating sea level at a speed of Mach 0.85 is 11m/s2 to 10.1m/s2 F -16A . MiG- 29A is the first in Russia plane with respect to the maximum mass greater than 1 MiG- 29A was in the production continually improved . Modernization of equipment related primarily to self-defense , which was influenced by such experience in Afghanistan. Ultimately, the system stop with the SPO- 15M (instead of SOP- 10). Also allowed the installation under the fuselage between the nozzles additional fuel tank PTB -1500 with a capacity of 1500 liters . As with many Soviet fighter machines , also in parallel with the MiGs – 29A also developed a variant room . April 28, 1981 roku flew the first two -seat version of the aircraft , designated MiG- 29UB (where ” UB ” means ” Ucziebno Bojowyj ” ), previously a prototype Izwiedije 9-03 . This second cabin necessitated the removal of the radar . In addition to this change, the plane is roughly the same parameters wrsji single-seater . Besides, MiG- 29UB , like their combat counterparts, are continuously being upgraded .