After successful tests in 1982 version of the MiG- 29A project Izwiedije 9-12 ( in NATO code : MiG -29 ” Fulcrum A “) entered into serial production . To this day, variant Izwiedije 9-12 is the basic and most common variant of the MiG -29 . MiG- 29A supersonic fighter aircraft as full a key role in the air defense system of the Russian Federation . Its main task consisted of patrolling designated areas of aircraft, defense against attack from the air major facilities (such as airports or clusters OJSK ) and an additional escort shock machines , as well as air superiority goes together with the SU- 27S aircraft , heavy fighter interceptor MiG- 31 and command aircraft A- 50 . In 1983, the first batch of MiG – 29A hit the fighter units of air defense of the country ( Powietrznyja Defense ) , stationed at the base Kubinka near Moscow. Since then, started to develop the application of new rules of combat aircraft , tactics, their operation and organization of technical and engineering facilities . Since 1984, the new aircraft began to receive the formations of Soviet aviation front ( Frontowoj Awiacjii ) . The new aircraft quickly gained a reputation among pilots and ground staff because of the ease of use . With a new , heavy -type air superiority fighter SU- 27 ” Flanker “, MiG -29 allowed the Russians to overcome technical advantage the U.S. Air Force and NATO. In addition, as a fighter so powerful was quite easy to fly and does not require specialized handling . As the MiG -29 fighter was also a short take-off and landing , so he could use a makeshift airstrips . Western experts for the first time have the opportunity to take a look at the new construction at the beginning of July 1986 , during the air show in town Rissala in Finland. Mentioned earlier fighter regiment Kubinka Air Base sent to the presentation of six aircraft at the disposal of that entity , and since that time a fighter has become a regular participant in the largest and most important air shows around the world. These six aircraft of this unit (ie, four -seater and 2 two-seater ) will soon set up aerobatic team ” Striżie ” or ” Swifts ” , which is also competitive with the team ” Russkie Witjazi ” using machines SU -27. Normally , this group serves in the air defense system around Moscow Military District , so as to present machines belonging to the suspension arms are mounted . Serial production of these machines still continued , and since 1986, MiG – 29, also built for export. In the same year the first MiG – 29A were also outside the USSR – they also frafiły Soviet air units based in the then Eastern bloc countries . The East German regiments equipped with these planes stationed at the base Merserburgu and Wittstock . Another database , which occupied units operating the MiG – 29A is a protocol Budapest and Hungary and Kinskunlahaza Chojna near Szczecin , where in addition to the same MiG – 29A are also stationed SU- 27S . By 1989 the Soviet Air Force provided a total of about 800 MiG – 29A and MiG- 29UB , and approximately 450 further copies of both versions were exported to 12 different countries , both members of the Warsaw Pact , as well as to countries outside it. Thus, among others, about 110 machines have India , 28 – Hungary , 23 – Germany, 22 – Poland 22 – Bulgaria , 16 – Slovakia , and 12 – Romania . Export career MiG -29 began in earnest in February 1984 , when the purchase of these aircraft offered to India . Finally, after a courtesy visit to the Minister of Defense of the USSR in February 1984 years and ordered 44 aircraft made an option to build about 80 more machines in factories HAL . The first 12 machines came to India in December 1986. These aircraft are known in the Indian aviation formations called ” Baaz ” which in Hindi means ” Falcon” . In April 1987 rearmed with two MiG -29 squadrons flying far to MiGach – 21pm . These are the 47 Squadron ” Archers ” and 28 Squadron “First Supersonics ” . Currently, these machines are a counterweight to being equipped Pakistan Air F- 16A / B. Syria was the second country which tempted to contract with MiG -29 . Export version of the aircraft , specially prepared for the dubious ” allies ” in the Far East , MiG- 29A project Izwiedije 9- 12B was characterized by relatively poor avionics and weapons . Syrians planned to take about 140 aircraft of this type, which were supposed to be equivalent Israeli F- 16C / D, F -15B and Netsher IAI ” Kfir ” . It is believed that a major impact on the nature of this contract were to include experience of Israeli- Syrian war , in which Syria suffered hunting lotnoctwo very heavy losses . In July of this year Syrians have received the first 16 aircraft , and the first unit has reached operational capability by the end of 1988. Currently, the MiG -29 are equipped with three air squadrons formed into one regiment . In addition to the aircraft until 1990 in the regiment stayed the Soviet instructors supervising the training, which, in their opinion , moreover, proceeded very slowly. Unconfirmed reports speak of several alleged encounters machines Israeli planes Syrian Golan over the hills . Finally, Syria has provided 42-46 aircraft . Another member seriously interested in a jiffy -29 was Iraq , which in 1987 began negotiations for the purchase of 48 aircraft of this type. The first 18 machines were given at the end of this year, and until the outbreak of the Gulf War the Iraqis received the remaining airframes , which are deployed in bases near Baghdad. Only this conflict greatly undermined the myth circulating the MiG -29 , as the course of events caused even his embarrassment . At least four MiG -29 were precipitated , virtually without a fight , the U.S. F- 15C , one of them hit the ground when performing defensive maneuvers , a further two shattered during landing. A further nine machines were disposed of at the airports and the rest were probably in a group of about 120 planes, which sought shelter in neighboring Iran. Planned by Iraqi cooperation with these machines command aircraft Il-76 equipped with an electronic domestic production Adnan type 2 proved to be totally ineffective . I must admit that very often this is an armed conflict is given as a key example of even cakowitejbezużyteczności Migo -29 współczensym the battlefield . But here falls objectively state that Iraqi aircraft came to operate in extremely harsh conditions of combat , the overwhelming superiority of the Allied forces , both numerically and in terms of electronic means , reconnaissance , command system , logistics , etc. The level of training of Iraqi pilots significantly different from expectations. In this case, it is worth mentioning that a variant of the MiG – 29A exported to Iraq corresponds to said product already Izwiedije 9- 12B , that is destined for countries outside of the Eastern bloc , and so devoid of Doppler radar and a full set of weapons , so surely it can not be classified as a high-quality machine . A similar turn of events took place in the former Yugoslavia , which incidentally was the first European military aircraft buyer described . At the beginning of 1988 to the country delivered 14 aircraft and two single-seater MiG- 29UB machine . They provided equipment stacjonyjącej fighter squadron based in Batajnica . There, for the first time publicly demonstrated it May 15, 1988 , during an open house. Aircraft , also known under the designation lam L -18 supplemented purchased over 30 years ago MiG – 21pm . For the next 16 aircraft order made yet in 1988 , but the outbreak of war in the Balkans , they arrived to Yugoslavia . In 1999 , during spring NATO air intervention in Serbia, which coincided with the de facto division of Yugoslavia, post- Yugoslav MiG – 29A , according to the command of the pact , at least four of them were destroyed. On the other hand, 12 of a total of 30 Moldovan MiG -29 were transported to Yemen where they took part in the ongoing civil war there . According to reports, one of which was downed by antiaircraft fire during a robbery to support ground troops , six have been destroyed by the rebels on the ground , the other five captured . Also, Iran – Iraq’s enemy in the recent prolonged armed conflict , chased the urgent need to replenish much depleted park aircraft , also placed an order for 48 aircraft of this type. Other non-European buyers of the MiG – 29A were Jordan , North Korea , Zimbabwe and Cuba . Koreans bought 25 aircraft in response to equip two squadrons ROKAF ( Republic Of Korea Air Force ) in the machine F- 16C / D. Cuban Fuerza Aerea Revolucjonaria received its first aircraft in October 1989 .( dog tags Aircraft assembled and flown at the base of San Antonio des Los Banos . Most likely, the 13 machines ordered by Cuba was formed one squadron . The German Democratic Republic was the first country of the Warsaw Pact , which decided to purchase MiG – 29A in May 1988 JG3 two squadrons stationed at the base in Preschen achieve operational readiness . A little known fact is that the German fighters equipped with the apparatus of the domestic production . MiG – 29A project Izwiedije 9- 12A variant specially prepared for the satellite states , also purchased in the spring of 1989 in the amount of 26 pieces the former Czechoslovakia . After the transformation of the country’s geopolitical 10 machines remained in the Czech Republic , the other received the newly created Slovakia . The first MiG – 29A for the erstwhile Ruses aérien but Republici socialist Romania were conducted to Kogalniceau PRZE Romanian pilots who have just completed a training course in the Soviet Union . For January 1990, provided all 12 copies. There they took part in the fighting between the army and the Romanian Securitate because the entity was not at that time fully prepared for combat operations . In Poland at the time of the People’s nine MiG – 29A and MiG – 29UB 3 hit the turn of the year 1989-1990 to 1 Fighter Wing . In 1996, Poland took over from the Czech Republic all 10 pieces of machinery that are already in its possession , as in the Czech Republic not only lacked funds for their maintenance, but also and above all the necessary spare parts. Since the mid- 90s in Poland is considering various modernization projects held by fighters , has become particularly urgent after joining the military structures of NATO , because there was an urgent need to adapt owned MiG -29 to the full benefit of the North Atlantic airspace . Recently pańtwami UW who acquired respectively 12 and 34 machines of this type were Bulgaria and Hungary . In 1994, Hungary bought another 30 machines , and in 1996 received 26 additional aircraft of this type as a form of repayment of the former Soviet Union to that country. Thus, Hungary could almost completely supplant old or aging machines MiG- 21pm fighter , the MiG- 21RW and MiG- 23MF . MiG -29 after the disclosure has been repeatedly presented at international exhibitions such as Farnborough and Paris. Atmosphere sensation and Appropriate fire , catchy advertising porawa contributed significantly to the dissemination of opinions about the very high performance of this aircraft. Even the memorable disaster during the show at the Paris Le Bourget airport June 8, 1989 , she was cleverly used to advertise rescue systems . In fact , saving the pilot Anatlolija Kwoczura stopping of one of the engines , most likely as a result of a collision with a bird aircraft at an altitude of 100m, on top of that during the presentation of flight at high angle of attack at low speed (about 170 km / h) , it was a feat bordering almost a miracle. After the collapse of the USSR ostarecznym in December 1991 a large part of the aircraft MiG -29 at the disposal of sleep longer the Red Army were divided between the newly formed independent republic. Thus, in these conditions, about 80 machines received Belarus ( of which 18 went to Peru ) , Kazakhstan – 36, Moldova -30 (some of them sold off ) , Turkmenistan – 30 , Ukraine – 236 ( about 40 have been sold ) and Uzbekistan – 30 pieces. Therefore, the air force reorganized Russian Federation number MiG -29 in early 1992 has been reduced to about 400. After another reorganization , carried out in 1998-2000 , many of these machines were shifted to reserve a few of them were sold abroad . All other fighters of this type are to be in the near future, thoroughly modernized by replacing blocks of electronic standards MiG- 29SM , MiG- 29SMT and what some of the items may have advanced to a variant of the MiG- 29M . Under this assumption, it is planned to maintain the combat value of these machines at a high level until the exhaustion of the resources of , ie to about 2015-2020 years . Thus, at the present time is the only Russian aircraft serving in the NATO air formations ” shoulder to shoulder ” with other kontrukcjami West. Simulated battles German MiG -29 seized from the former East Germany allowed for a more objective assessment of the aircraft and generally confirmed that the fighting ability of the MiG – 29A ( Izwiedije 9-12) are generally comparable to the leading light of NATO fighter aircraft such as the F- F- 16C or 18C . Then the four of ” postNRDowskich ” machines, including two seater version , have been subjected to comprehensive testing by a special unit in Mancing EK61 , which confirmed its usefulness ( as was the aircraft SU- 22M4 , which after thorough inspection it was decided to leave the service ) for further service in the German Luftwaffe . Currently, aircraft MiG -29 is in the Air Force as many as 21 countries and we have to admit that this is one of the most famous , popular and respected military aircraft around the world. Interestingly, the United States has about 25 pieces of machinery , purchased mainly from Moldova. They serve probably as a potential opponent in school improvement Top Gun pilot . In addition, it is worth noting that the MiG -29 because of its fantastic własniości volatile and combat , has become a real favorite with many aviation enthusiasts . To date , despite the above-mentioned number of accidents on the main part continuous air shows worldwide. It is estimated that by 1992 produced a total of 1216 single -seat MiG -29 and 197 school- fighting equipment and MiG – 29UB . Since the beginning of 1992 the fighter is produced only for export , mainly due to the current difficult financial situation in the Russian Air Force. It is expected that gradually upgraded to the new standards MiG -29 will be used in line a long time , perhaps even until 2020 , as his successor : hypothetical MiG- 39 and MiG MiG MFI and LFI are still in the prototype phase or project. It is possible that his successor will be light , built jointly with China, folk , light fighter PAK FA , or proposed by the Mikoyan lightweight fighter I- 2000 . So, in summary, the MiG -29 will be a long time enjoyed the reputation of one of the best fighters in the world . A very successful design and aerodynamics of the machine , along with a very modern avionics and weapons systems mean that the Russian fighter in the latest versions of the MiG- 29M and MiG- 29SMT , which will be discussed later in this study is comparable with the most modern , multi-purpose NATO fighters belonging to the so-called . intermediate generation 4 + (which in some aspects generation of transition between machines 4th and 5th generation ) , such as the American F -16C / D Block latest production series 52/54 or even the Swedish JAS- 39A Gripen . It is also worth mentioning that the office Mikoyan constantly expanding its offer for the MiG – 29 is not only the building of new varieties , but also by offering cheap and also very successful proposals for modernization , including both navigation systems and weapon set . In this way, the recently rebuilt including part of the machinery of Romanian MiG- 29A ( 9 -12A Izwiedije ) the standard MiG- 29AR “Sniper “, giving him three multifunction displays and western components and electronic units , including tactical TACAN navigation system , allowing them to operate in the airspace of NATO . There are also plans for rebuilding the Polish machines , but so far unknown to the details of any agreements. In general, a very high possibility of the latest MiG – 29SMT and MiG – 29M , coupled with a fairly reasonable price, is in itself a very important asset of declining export now Mikoyan design office .