Soldier dead in order to fight and how you need it is dying. Fight for freedom of the country , for the freedom of the people , for justice, for oil, for money, for religion, revenge , hatred of stupid politicians , etc. Themes of war are many, but for every war ever killed soldiers . Death of a soldier , in most cases , it is so beautiful and pure as a Latin show is terrible , often painful , and in many cases the body is slain little or non-existent . This is mainly due to nieśmiertelnikom not grow a list of missing without a trace and the families of the fallen, in accordance with international law , may seek financial assistance from the state, have a right to the body of the fallen and if not possible, to provide their family, indicate the place of their burial. History of immortals in the Russian army dates back to the nineteenth century, probably . There is a legend [ 1] that the First Dog emerged during Russian – Turkish War , where supposedly in 1877, all the soldiers of one of the regiments of the guard before heading to war with Bulgaria were equipped with ” metal chips from a string to wear around his neck ”  . The chips were behind the name of the regiment , battalion number , the number of companies and the number of soldiers . The documents and orders ( laws ) there is nowhere to sign any order in writing of such immortals normalized release at this time , so us treat this story as a legend.
Dog tag is a kind of metal medallion / boxes ( copied pattern Austrian dog tag ) with dimensions of 50x33x4 mm , which is composed of two halves. The parchment sheet placed in the center of the data stored chemical indelible pencil or ink by the printed pattern. Due to the size of the blank on a piece of paper that could fit only the most relevant data such as first name, last name , year and place of birth , year of establishment of the army , religion, number of companions ( battery , troop ), the number and name of the regiment. Medallion is worn on a string or ribbon around his neck under his uniform . Until the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk to the line provided a small amount of immortals wz.1917 and the Bolshevik October Revolution slowed the delivery even more. Among collectors and hunters , not only in Poland but also in many other countries , repent and be thoughtlessly copied from tsarist misconception ” licznyj sign” is a Dog . No! ” Licznyj character ” (personal number) Dog is not , although large quantities of these chips is on the battlefields of the Great War in the places where they fought and died Russian soldiers . ” Licznyj sign” is a specific type of identity document at the same time confirming the soldier and the person holding it is a soldier on a pass legal or business trip .  During the Civil War and the War of Polish soldiers in 1920, the Worker – Peasant Red Army ( RKKA ) without immortals Most militant killed , seriously wounded or captured Russians on the list of losses listed as missing , because it is impossible to identify them by name . Order No 856 of 14 August 1925 ” О введении в действие ‘ Инструкции по использованию медальонов с личными сведениями о военнослужащих РККА и РКВМФ ‘ ” [5 ] requires the release of all persons serving in the Army and Navy as well as all new bottom-up , character identity. Medallion pattern . 1925 is a copy of the tsarist medallion pattern . 1917 and, like the imperial dog tag is a metal box with dimensions of 50x33x4 mm . Changed only print on a piece of paper which is placed inside the locket .
Data that are recorded on the form parchment [ 6 ] of the printed pattern are: – the name – name – Name of the Father – Date of birth – ” Wojenkomat ” ( Polish equivalent HCR ) – Circuit ( republic ) – The town (village ) of residence – The degree of business Forms medallion filled kompanijny writer chemical ink. Dog tag wz.1925 had to wear on his chest under his uniform on a string or ribbon . Medallion was also at the same time proof of identity and RKWMF RKKA soldier . In the wake of rampant terrorism in the 30’s in the Soviet Union and the so-called . “Purge ” in the ranks of the Army and Navy , 25 August 1937 it was a medallion wz.1925 is abolished. There are many speculations as to why this happened , the most likely reason and how absurd is that the Order No. 856 on the introduction of the medallion wz.1925 signed the ” enemy of the people ” [7 ] and as such is an enemy soldier medallion RKKA and RKWMF . 21st of December 1939 the order of the National Commissioner of defense of the USSR No. 238 re- introduced for use in with dog tag . In 1925 . Reloaded medallion was caused huge losses RKKA during the fighting with Japan in the Far East , the campaign in Poland and the start of the Winter War with Finland . Old model ” smiertnika ” is supplemented by new ” tested ” models of containers for paper application forms . Then introduced a new form of metal packaging in the shape of a closed cylinder , and the first series of pencil cases bakelite . 20th June 1940 Dog disappear again equip soldiers of the Red Army .
15th March 1941 and order No. 138,  introduced a new design dog tag for the Army and Navy. The housing is made of rubber and has the shape of an elongated octagonal container black or brown with dimensions 50x14mm, with an internal diameter of 8mm with detachable lid. The interior of the container placed in two identical save for the printed design sheet of parchment. These cards have dimensions 180x40mm (frontier troops and NKVD was supplied in sheet size 280x53mm with a vertical green stripe width of 5 mm over the entire length of the blank) and were written in pencil on the chemical the following information: – the name – name – Name of the Father – Year of birth – The level of military – Place of birth (republic, region, city, county, village) – Immediate family data (name and address of a relative) – “Wojenkomat” soldier – By blood. J. Jański classification (I to IV)
The blanks not placed any formation in which the unit is a soldier . Dog tag wz.1941 accordance with the rules had to be stored in special pocket pants ( on the right side below the waist ) . There was also a version of this medallion with a special eye for attaching a cord or ribbon and wear it around your neck under his uniform . Proceedings of the sheets tightly regulated Immortelle Order No. 138, which defined that team sanitary soldier killed after finding he took out of the container only one card , the other put back into pencil case and left the dead . So it was only in theory. In practice , especially in 1941 , there was no time to search for their dead , and among the soldiers RKKA there was a superstition that if you fill out a form surely die. For this reason, the print filled . Did not do it too, because the blanks are not supplied in time , there was a writer kompanijnego , one of the soldiers in the subunit could not write. Often, instead of blanks soldier wanted to stay in a pencil case matches , sewing needles and similar items . These and many other reasons that led to the situation today finds many nameless remains of Soviet soldiers in the fields of past battles , and it is Order No. 138 for the first time clearly defined and when killed will be buried and by whom. Before the war ( the Soviet Union in June 1941 is the year) and in the middle of it was unable to produce the necessary number of immortals , because it was used so many alternative forms . The most frequently used old stocks medallions wz.1925 ( or only blank paper ) . Often, the dog tag chalks produced from wood or metal , as well as scales pistol and rifle . Forms also were different and the ” factory ” of the printed template to fill out, as well as those made of ordinary paper or torn pages from a book of hand- written name and address. In the besieged Leningrad produced and used so-called . ” Blokadnika ” or green round container with screw cap , simpler and cheaper to produce than a standard pencil case octagonal pattern . In 1941 .
17th In November 1942 RKKA and RKWMF was required Order No. 376 which prohibits the issuance and re- use of immortals wz.1941 [9 ] , as well as any other model . Reason for the introduction of this order is not entirely clear. Theoretically, the only evidence and proof of identity , and in a sense the ” Dog ” was to be the book Red Army . Just like a paper notebook is to provide the identity of the soldier as his body lies in the mud for a few days. Why were withdrawn from the Army Dog Tags and Fleet ? Not applicable. One can only presume that purely economic considerations were the basis for the withdrawal of Immortelle wallpaper . In 1941 . Families of the fallen soldiers provided by the State pension and welfare , families of soldiers declared missing had nothing from the state and often they become to harassment and repression – Stalin’s order No. 270 of 16 August 1941 . By the end of the war officers, soldiers and sailors did not have regular dog tag . Under the front , so as not to be nameless missing , Soviet soldiers signed their personal items and equipment. On the battlefields of World War II , where he fought the Russians , often is signed , not only your name but also the number and address of the immediate family , spoons , canteen , mess tins , cigarette cases and many other items . Interesting are found specially cut aluminum plates of various shapes with engraved name and the name of the unit , which are specific samoróbkami immortals .
At the end of World War II soldiers conscripted and professional non-commissioned officers still had no signs of identity. Dog tag with an individual number were issued only officers from January 1958 under the order of 125 to 3 July 1957roku [ 10]. The main points of this order quote to illustrate the principles of distribution of chips and continue with their investigation . 1 Dog tag seems to all officers , generals and admirals who are on active duty and in the reserve. Once assigned number is fixed at the time of service by the officer as well as the length of stay of an officer in the reserve. After removal from the state mobilization officer ‘s personal number is not assigned to another officer , but forever is assigned to him . 2 Personal number consists of a series and six digits. Series is a single letter of Russian alphabet, such as : Б – 123456 . 3 The assigned officer placed the number in all documents concerning him , such as the legitimacy of the officer , personal orders , etc. Every officer after receiving the pin number is required to inform the next of kin and what is the series number of the dog tag . The family dealing with the administration of the Soviet Army officer to issue State concerned , put in all the papers next to the name .
4 Chip union officer shall be issued together with the promotion of legitimacy officer at a military academy, the registration of first-degree officer . Since then, the immortal officer is always with you . Reserve officer can issue the promotion of the first officer at the college level civil . His dog tag chip is stored in a ” war – komatach “, the right of his place of residence in the officer’s personnel records . He thinks it is only during exercise or during reserve mobilization. In case of loss ( loss ) chip by professional officer or a reserve officer does not feel it is new with the new number only used for making a duplicate of a lost dog tag . The costs charged to the implementation of a duplicate officer who lost his marker . 5 At the same time the token is filled with a special form of data officer , such as: – Number of the officer’s personal – Surname, first name , father’s name – Day, month , year and place of birth – Military rank at the date of filling the paper ( no order , date, who signed the order of promotion) – Name of the office issuing the token (university , ” wars KOMAT ” ) – On the back: the immediate family and the address where the officer has a wife is the family name, the name of his father ‘s wife , in the case of bachelors name, first name and father’s name next of kin Cards filled with ink , handwriting legible without amendment. Completed cards are stored in an officer ‘s personal file on the fly updating personal information.
6 In legitymacjach officers , books, materials , and all personal documents token number of the officer entered immediately after the name of his father. 7 Immortelle Description : tile made from metal ( aluminum ) oval plate thickness 1.5 – 2mm size 45x26mm . The obverse chip is divided into two horizontal longitudinal line. Above it were broken string ВС СССР [11 ] and the line placed in series and number . At one end of the hollow tile is a hole with a diameter of 3 to 4mm to przytroczenia chip uniform . Chips kept while serving the special pocket pants in front of the right or left side of the strap above the pocket , strapped with a string or ribbon to the pants. Reverse token is not saved. The Soviet Army uniform all regulations were freely interpreted and ways to wear the chip also were different. How , who, where and when he had to wear dog tags mod. 1957 defined the unit commander . The chip is worn and probably for today is to : – Pinned to the keys to the premises – Attached a pad so . ” Float ” [12 ] , from the middle tunic – On a chain , cord or ribbon around his neck – Attached , sewn to the cover of legitimacy officer – Loose in your pocket or jacket uniforms – Loose sheet inserted between the legitimacy of the officers – In the safe at the command Wearing accordance with the order number 125 in a dedicated pocket specifically meets probably the least likely .
At the time of mobilization and war dog tags should appear every soldier of the Soviet Army. Information about the proceedings of chips for not officers in the war at full mobilization do not have, but probably every reservist in the USSR has already been filled in forms and waiting for them with his dog tags stamped “wojenkomacie”. Dog tag wz.1957 officially until now has not been withdrawn from the supply of professional officers and reserve officers. During the intervention in Afghanistan in 1979-1989 conscripts and professional non-commissioned officers and warrant officers not equipped in the Dog. Chips were only professional officers and reserve officers. The Soviet Union never recognized the intervention in Afghanistan as the war and is therefore not expected procurement officers in the Dog does not like that it was during the war.
” Afgańcy ” would not be nameless , if you can not identify the body , used the method of their grandfathers and fathers of the Second World War. As containers yokes of personal data used shells from rifle and pistol ammunition .  These ” medallions ” were worn around the neck , in your pocket , in different ways . Each subunit was another “fashion” . A widely used ” custom ” was tattooing the chest near the heart symbol blood group , it was in many cases the only information for the surgeon or doctor , blood which needs to hurt. Immortals is issued as no officers serving in various garrisons outside the Soviet Union : Poland, East Germany , Czechoslovakia. In the late 80’s , there were isolated cases of supplied the soldiers , not officers who are outside the country, but the chips were individual ideas commanders not embedded in any orders in writing . Breaks down the Soviet Union , the Soviet Army ceased to exist , an increasing number of local conflicts in the former Soviet republics, bringing more and more deaths and injuries that can not be recognized. Public opinion in the federation is different than in the USSR. People are less likely to buoy and press the authorities to their children , husbands , relatives , for example, did not have to hit the ” refrigerator ” in Rostov n / Don as a nameless body. After the conflict in Tajikistan , mainly after huge losses during the fighting in January 1995 in Grozny , Russian army starts to design chips also szeregowcom officers , non-commissioned officers and warrant officer . Dog tag this differs from the officer’s just a series instead of one letter and six digits are two letters and six digits .
History of Soviet and Russian immortals has more than one hundred years . Times have changed , changed the approach to the determination of a soldier dog tags , but one thing has remained unchanged to this day , a soldier nonprofessionals Russian Army still lacks regular dog tag design . In 1997, he was introduced to the forces of the MVD [14 ] a new design dog tag that was part and used in the Army and Navy ( instead of a string МВД РОССИИ extruded БС РОССИИ or ВМФ РОССИИ ), but the chips in this formula are rare in the AFR and WMF . Seeing as new markings stamped БС РОССИИ wz.1957 tile in both the officer and in the version for non- officers. The films and photos of the numerous armed conflicts involving Russian soldiers we see young people from the ” gills ” on the neck, but they are usually ” samoróbki ” strange creatures engraving and casting , purchased individually or chips on the American model . The widespread introduction of clear patterns Immortelle certainly will not be a panacea to combat losses still present , but it certainly reduces the number of nameless dead . Is it still suffered this Russian nonchalance and lack of concern for commanders and authorities with a simple soldier ? Поживем – увидим a Russian proverb .
Zbigniew ” sapper ” Ziemińskifootnotes : 1 С . Б . Федосеев , Личные ( увольнительные ) знаки русской армии и флота , Санкт – Петербург 2008 , passim . 2 С . Б . Федосеев , op.cit. , Passim . 3 http://www.soldat.ru/doc/search/med.html 4 Follow the instructions on the issue of troops many characters : the personal character soldier received when he left his home unit for less than a day , but only for the evening roll call, the absence of the long- anticipated paper soldier exposed to such a pass , while serving on leave for more than one day instead of a pass or token exhibited ticket home at the expected time of leave. The subunits , each team up during planned exercises for dog-tag number . In 1937, the RKKA reintroduced large sign on the rights similar to the tsar . The chip design in 1937 instead of the companions and the regiment had only a mailbox number field , the rest of the information embossed on the tile were similar to those placed on the tsar’s numerous character. 5 http://www.soldat.ru/doc/search/med.html 6 In most cases, blank dog tag was made with parchment paper but with lower quality , often printed pattern on plain newsprint . Blanks of these had to be printed a lot , because wz.1925 medallions and blanks inserted themselves into other containers meet the 1939-1940 Winter War battlefields and on the battlefields of the years 1941 to 1942 7 http://www.soldat.ru/doc/search/med.html 8 http://community.livejournal.com/drang_nach/47606.html 9 http://ww2.ru/ , passim . 10 Приказ Министра обороны СССР № 125 3 июля 1957 г . Москва 11Вооруженне Силы СССР – Armed Forces of the USSR 12 Slang for badge completion of military colleges . Badges are worn on the right breast of the uniform fixed in a certain place of the existing Rules of uniforms . 13 http://www.artofwar.ru , passim . 14 http://www.businesspravo.ru/Docum/DocumShow_DocumID_53540.html maneuvers , longer than one day in a number of signs was supplied with all the soldiers . This practice is probably the cause of such a large number of chips found on many characters the First World War battlefields and not considered personal