Almost all of us who once hoped to be the discoverer of a treasure. Childhood dreams sometimes come true and I do not mean chest full of gold , as a treasure to be close to the heart , for someone else is not worth even a penny . In the nineties of the last century , also Polish , became trendy searching with a metal detector . With each year comes the so-called hunters . military . The method is very simple. Studying the maps, books about fighting on Polish soil , taken detector and shovel and you have to move into the area . Most are riddled with bullets rust and the elements of military equipment such as bayonets , buckles , buttons, helmets, bowls , coins , etc. But nothing gives the seeker satisfaction , delivering messages to find its user. One of these findings are ” dog tags ” , or military identification marks . The one who presented the picture belonged to a German soldier . It comes from the period of World War II. It should explain his identity : 548 – number of the soldier , 5.Shwd . – Probably means 5 Squadron, Fahr Ers – Abt.3 – means vehicles spare 3rd battalion reserve battalion or three vehicles , A – the blood group determination . I found ” immortal” aluminum plate is divided into two halves , allowing you to identify the soldier in case of his death . Both halves contain the same data , which we have already mentioned. In the case of the death of a soldier , the upper half of the two holes were left on the body in a makeshift grave generally , and the lower one hole passed to the archive in order to inform the family. Practically, this was the only chance for those who died in the fight for the homeland is not unknown to anyone other soldiers. Characters were issued with military booklet . Worn around the neck usually in a case made of a thin skin on the braided cotton cord with a length of about 80 cm. In place of the laces and used chains . One of the first who initiated the identification of the troops were Americans , with signs of identity even during the Civil War. On a larger scale, ” Dog ” appeared during the First World War . Unique identification marks owned Austro-Hungarian soldiers . It was a closed container with a hinged piece of paper in the middle. On it were discharged all user data . German air units during World War II, apply the ” Dog ” in stainless steel , resistant to high temperature. There was also a lot samoróbek where soldiers put their name, the name of the place of residence or the name of the battle attended . German sailors to avoid losing the ” dog tag ” for example, when jumping into the water, tied it to a string onto the left shoulder and running under the right armpit. Another element used was altering the mark on bracelets or sew thread through the hole to the belt or uniform. Its markings were also German civilians working for the military, forced laborers and prisoners of concentration camps . In large factories and camps, the use of signs of identity was necessary due to the large number of people residing in the factory or a concentration camp. He was usually on their number and the number of prisoner camp. Most, however, the number was trimmed camper prison garb . Returning to the ” dog tag ” section of the pictures , after finding a soldier tried to establish personalities and odnaleść his family. Despite the support of Deutsche Dienststelle ( WASt ) from Berlin , the Foundation “Remembrance ” from Warsaw , Volksbund Deutscher Kriegsgraberfursorge of Kassel, the Consulate General of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Council for the Protection of Struggle and safety of Warsaw and the Board of the Polish Red Cross , and so far I did not succeed. Recently, I decided to return to the subject , and perhaps the history of the ” dog tag ” is not over yet . The identity of this sign posted on their pages ” Glos Wielkopolski ” in 2003. Check out the gallery .
Archive for October, 2013
In May 1945, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was certain that Stalin did not honor its commitments to the Yalta Conference ( February 1945 ) . It was found there that the state occupied by Soviet troops themselves have chosen their authorities. He said then : ” I’m not going to be deceived on the Polish , even if we are on the brink of war with Russia .” Prime Minister commissioned the then Joint Planning Staff development and evaluation of the plan the attack on the Soviet Union. He wanted to know if he has any chance of success . As it turned victory in the war was very uncertain. The plan bore the code name ” Unthinkable ” and as such was sent to the most secret part of the archive. This material was strictly secret known only to a handful of small number of people . It was revealed in 1998, and today, this document can be viewed in the British National Archives ( Catalogue ref: CAB 120/691 ) .
However, Stalin quickly learned of its existence through his London Spy . His concern may cause oral command Churchill Marshal Montgomery to do inventory of German weapons against its ” future use ” . Stalin knew that he becomes an enemy number one in Europe. The paper consists of 38 pages and include an assessment of the potential effectiveness of the Allied attack on the Soviet Union . In this war game planned attack was to take place on the 1st of July 1945 British Prime Minister also wanted to know if you can take advantage of this confrontation remains of the Wehrmacht and the economic potential of Germany. Chief of Staff of the British General Alan Brooke was appalled by the plan. He wrote in his diary that Churchill ” committed for the next war.” Perhaps one of the reasons tendencies Churchill was his knowledge of the American project ” Manhattan” . The United States had been within range of nuclear weapons , which in the event of a confrontation with the USSR, the Allies could benefit . Or maybe they were reported to analysts about the possibility of the Red Army “on Middle East oil fields and offensive in Southeast Asia .” So the attack , which as I mentioned was to begin on July 1 , had to move divisions of British, American , Polish and German . The basis for a successful attack would be a surprise and immediately taking the lead in the air and at sea. It was assumed that aggression will meet with a positive assessment opinni public in the West, and the nations that are under the Soviet occupation will support the Allies .According to the estimates of analysts in the first few days the Allies would be able to put 47 divisions including 14 armored . Reconstituted Forces Wehrmacht was estimated to be 10 divisions including one armored , adding that they can not guarantee their suitability in the first stage of the battle . The potential of Poles by planners was 4 divisions . Russians are able to withstand the forces of 170 divisions , including 30 armored . At first glance the large disparity of power armor amounting to 2:1 , and 4:1 infantry . Advantage Allied naval concerned only , but she was not able to fundamentally change the course of the campaign. The Red Army was mainly concentrated in central and there a planned major offensive . Strike called Move on two fronts. The first ran on the line saw Szczecin Bydgoszcz , and the second – Cottbus – Leipzig Town. The decisive battle armor were to take place east of the Oder – Neisse . Planners wrote down : ” If we win there , we can get to the line Gdańsk – Wrocław” . At the same time it was found that when started to be real problems . Formed two options. The first involved the continued march to the east. But further fighting would last in the autumn-winter season while improving lines of communication . The second option was introduced to stop the attack and wait out until the spring , but this in turn would give the Soviets time to regain strategic advantage and rebuild strength. There remained the question of Soviet troops located in Bohemia and Moravia . If you reach the Vistula to the troops were on the right flank of the Allies. Russians themselves from these areas would not come out , so it should be directed against a force as undermining the main front. In fact, analysts forecast that ” there is no such limit which, if exceeded by the Allies break the Russian resistance. Nor can it be assumed that the Allies would be able to come so far so fast in Russia and Germany in 1942 , and even then not brought them success. ” It is hard to disagree with that opinion . As we can see possible defeat of the Red Army was a very daring challenge. No evidence did not indicate that, even with the support of the German and Polish divisions , you can break down the Russians. As noted in the report : “Although the Allies are more organized , have a slightly better weapons and higher morale , the Russians proved to be a formidable opponent for the Germans . Possess competent commanders , appropriate equipment and organization that (but does not fit our standards ) passed the test. On the other hand, only one third of all its divisions is in very good condition . remainder is relatively weak in comparison with the Allied less mobile . ” Although not ruled out victory in total war , and perhaps nuclear . (!) It would take a very long time and would be very expensive . According to estimates tactics Russians could rely on a phasing in an easterly direction to extend the Allied lines of communication . As well as the attack on Norway and Greece or Petroleum deposits in the Middle East. The invasion was very disturbing to Turkey ( cut , Black Sea ) . In the event of conflict, Moscow certainly sabotowałaby lines of communication and exploited its many agents in the West. Despite the quantitative advantage of the Red Army on the British Allied forces perceived chance of success of the operation in surprise and qualitative superiority of its forces . It was written : ” The Russian military is struggling with heavy losses and fatigue. Tactical Training is worse than that of the German forces . Should be taken into account the low level of education in the Red Army , all the experts were sent to specialized troops . Lacks a well educated and trained staff officers and mid-level commanders . emerging information that the Russian leadership has great difficulty maintaining discipline . Looting and drunkenness are common acting effect of war fatigue connections and contacts with more than at home in the material standard . Any resumption of hostilities that Europe would be a big burden for Red Army. Headquarters would have difficulties in maintaining morale , especially among the lower -ranking foot soldiers . effect could be strengthened if the Allies had applied an effective propaganda ” . It was also noted that ” most Americans demonstrated a clear reluctance to Russians. Applies even Berling’s army , which currently has 10 divisions – Moscow can not be sure that it will support Berling’s army , or at least remain neutral .” The entire plan was discussed among the highest commanders of May 31, 1945 , the Chief of Staff Alan Brooke idea summed by the words ” the whole idea is of course fantastic, but the chances of success are slim . There is no doubt that from now on Russia is a legitimate power in Europe ” . It was clear that the attack on the Soviet Union had to be completed , if not immediately , then quickly defeat.
Established on January 8, 1938
It was divided into three levels – gold, – silver; – brown. The award was the medal round with a diameter of 35 mm, which was the obverse Eagle State in the rim of stylized ornament and inscription: ZA long service. On the reverse was the Roman numeral XXX Gold, XX with silver, X with brown laurel based on a twig. Medal was mounted on the ribbon of width, 37 mm in magenta with a longitudinal white stripe width of 11 mm located in the center.
Established on: April 25, 1925,
theEstablished by Resolution of the Council of Ministers. Badge is a circular medal struck in silver, with a diameter of 30 mm, on the obverse of the coin there is a picture of an eagle state, and the rim an inscription: REPUBLIC OF POLAND, the claws of an eagle two diamonds, the reverse of the medal two-line inscription: 3 MAY / 1925, the following serial number stamped coin. Ribbon width 38 mm with cross bars width of 15 mm.
Established on: September 27, 1928,
theSign was a two-sided medal round with a diameter of 35 mm bits in bronze. On the front side is relief of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski. On the reverse side was placed and the image which symbolizes a peasant plowing the ground work. Under the image umieszczno ten years of the date of limiting the Polish Independence, namely 1918-1928. Medal was hung on the ribbon width 38 mm color habrowego.
Established on: September 21, 1928,
theThe sign is double-sided medal with a diameter of 35 mm minted in bronze. The obverse bears the image according to the pattern of the National Eagle 1927, Eagle has hung around his neck, the ribbon of the Order of the Cross of Military Virtue. On both sides of the Eagle, just above the claws are placed numbers: 1918 and 1921. On the reverse side, in the middle of a ribbon tied at the bottom of the wreath of oak leaves is the inscription: POLAND his DEFENDERS.
Established on 22 March 1928
Renovated Edict of the President of Poland. Badge is a circular medal struck in silver with a diameter of 35 mm, on the obverse of the coin there is a picture of an eagle state, and the rim an inscription: REPUBLIC OF POLAND, on the reverse of the coin in the middle of the inscription: FOR / RESCUE / dying oak wreath on the rim four interwoven with ribbon. Ribbon width 40mm white with a red stripe width 3.5 mm in the middle and takimż stripe along both sides.
Established by 1920
Established by the Head of State and Commander in Chief of Poles who came from America, who participated in the struggle for independence. Determination was one-sided, equilateral cross with a diameter of 55 mm made of bronze. The arms of the cross were sharply cut ends. In the middle of the cross was placed an image of the Eagle of the State, and on the shoulders of inscriptions: at the top – his soldiers to Z, the horizontal – AMERICA, and the bottom – POLAND liberated. Soak up the bronze, which are between the arms of the cross, embossed inscriptions: CHAMPAGNE, Lviv, Volyn, POMORZE. Cross was suspended for two-color ribbon (red and white) with a width of 2.5 cm
Established on: February 27, 1922,
theEstablished by Resolution of the Sejm of Vilnius. Approved by the Interim Commission Ruling on 27th 03 1922 Medal of the cross (a bachelor) bits in bronze, size 43 x 43 mm, on the shoulders of the front of the cross sign and date: VILNIUS-9X-19XI-1920; laurel wreath between the arms, in the middle of the cross in the grip of an eagle holding a shield with the the coat of arms of Lithuania (Quest), the horizontal arms of the cross reverse inscription: LITHUANIA-cENTER, the vertical arms of the two swords, the center of the circular disc, between the arms of the cross as the awersie.Wstążka rim width 37 mm, green with seven yellow-red longitudinal stripes width 2 mm at intervals of 3 mm.