Missing in southern France

December 19th, 2013
by andrzej

doogtags

 

August 15, 1944 , the U.S. First Airborne Division Parachute Task Force ( FABTF ) was dropped west of Nice, in southern France. Then there was a large-scale landing of Allied troops on the beaches between Cannes and Toulon .A few days after landing FABTF given the task moves toward the Italian border , and thus the liberation of parts of Nice. German units defending the area was 148 Replacement Division , made up mostly of troops from Silesia. The German troops were not strong enough to stop the Allied advance towards the border with Italy. Their task was only to delay the march of the Allies and to give time to prepare a better defense in the high mountains at the border. From 20 August to early September , FABTF go towards the border. German troops were occupied defensive lines only on particularly favorable positions , and after a few hours of fighting defense retreated .One such defensive skirmishes took place near Villeneuve -Loubet , a small town in which I live . The famous unit called the First Special Service Force ( FSSF ) , an elite team made up of Americans and Canadians come close to Villeneuve at night on August 24 . Germany prepared an ambush by the roadside , wounding several soldiers. It stopped the attack FSSF that day. Resumed until the next night. On the morning of August 26 Villeneuve was surrounded and attacked simultaneously from the front and from behind. Several German soldiers have been killed , but dozens of surrender. One group , which consists of about 30 soldiers led by a Pole , surrendered to the French teenager , who told them that it makes no sense to fight anymore .In the afternoon, Aug. 26 Germany attempted to counterattack on Villeneuve , but their allied soldiers carefully waited in hiding and were able to easily reject the enemy , killed in battle a few wehrmachtowców further . A Frenchwoman , a witness fights, saw Polish soldier running toward the Allied soldiers with a white flag , which was shot in the back by a German officer . Similar incident described in the report Americans and Canadians . Many Poles wanted to give up, but the officers were using all available means , I would stop them .When I asked older people living in Villeneuve about this event , I was very surprised by the findings : ” Why do you want to know? Are you looking for the Germans ? ‘. I discovered that all those German soldiers died Aug. 26, 1944 , they were buried in a mass grave in the woods right next to Villeneuve ! Body initially left lying on the ground, but after a few days had something to do with them as it began to decompose . Local residents dug a big grave and buried in the body. For some unknown reason no one has ever tried to find the grave after the war. Since I am a medical student and have always been fascinated by forensic science , I decided to find the grave .The most difficult task was to accurately determine its position when it really was not sure if he really exists. But I made it to all older people and everyone was asking the question what he knows about the tomb . Everyone said something different , so I had to choose the most reliable relationships . Some repeating things they had heard from others, but I needed to eyewitnesses .An older man , more than 90 -year-old , he worked in the field when the grave was dug in 1944 told me that the bottom was between fairly old tree , a small river . I tried to watch the ground, explore the metal detector , view aerial photos , but nothing resulted because the area looked normal, and aerial photos also did not ask anything . Research metal detector was difficult, because the whole area is full of metal scrap inherent in the ground. So I started to dig a meter deep pits in random places after dark. After digging ten of the pits I finally found a human bone. I was very pleased and surprised but also shocked because I did not know what to do now . I did not expect that I really find German soldiers buried in a mass grave in the middle of the Côte d’Azur . I was not sure what to do now .Finally, after a long series of thoughts and discussions , organized jointly with the exhumation Volksbundem ( German People’s Association for Care of War Graves ) . They organized everything so that was an official character , but I was allowed , and the archeologist and kilkorgu medycyjny students participate in the work . Dug grave 18 and 19 October 2006 In total we found 14 bodies in it lying at different random positions. They were just thrown into the pit and covered with soil . Some bodies were lying on his back , the other on your stomach . Many items were next to corpses – were helmets, ammunition belts, coins , combs and buttons . An interesting fact was that only one body lacked shoes , and all were deprived of bayonets (even though the bars were the vagina ) . French civilians took everything that could be useful . The tomb was also a second , loose pair of shoes that have been removed from the legs of the fallen soldier , and then thrown back into the grave. I thought it rather odd , until I looked exactly these shoes . They were cut into fragments . Apparently, a Frenchman wanted to take for himself footwear , but noted that it is destroyed , so he resigned from his plan and threw them back to the grave.A few are in grave helmets were damaged by shrapnel or bullets , allowing us to determine the direct cause of death. One of the helmets was particularly frightening because a large piece of the projectile fragmentation went exactly by that helmet , dog tags the way blew the head of the owner.Other discoveries were poignant ring on the finger of one of the killed and several immortals . One was particularly surprising. He was found stuck in the bridge of soldiers , with a bullet hole in the middle of the plaque.In total, we found seven immortals , which we sent to Berlin. It turned out that one of them is too damaged to read the inscription , while the second could not even decipher . Germany used the immortals with the code numbers instead of the names of the soldiers , so that when a document containing the assignment of a number konkretnymu soldier has been lost , it is not possible to identify the man. I was very disappointed that the dead soldier can not be identified by such technical detail .Employees WASt in Berlin were able to determine the personalities of five soldiers based on their dog tags , and searching archival documents also found the names of two more soldiers declared missing in the area of Villeneuve . It was, therefore , they had to wear them soldiers , whose dog tags could not be read. In 2007, all the bodies were transferred to the German ball chainsWar Cemetery in Berneuil in France.As mentioned earlier, 148 Replacement Division was composed mainly Silesians. Most of them were either very young or very old as soldiers . It turned out that among the seven identified four soldiers came from Upper Silesia , two from the Czech Republic , and the only one from the land belonging to Germany today – from a small town lying at the current Polish border.After sending a series of letters , with the help of Volksbund , made contact with members of the families of two soldiers from Silesia and one from the Czech Republic . They were all very glad , to learn the fate of missing loved ones . The son of one of the soldiers came to Villeneuve- Loubet in 2008 to meet with me and see previous burial place of his father. Remained in place for a few days, and one evening , just before leaving , he told me something that made my search suddenly seemed to make sense to me : ” Look here … I lost my father at this point , but I gained a friend … ” .

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Old German dog tags

December 19th, 2013
by andrzej

About a hundred soldiers of immortals and thousands of personal items belonging to the former German prisoners of Stalag 1B Hohenstein War II , discovered during archaeological work in the construction of the S -7 near Olsztynek .When going to the end of October archaeological research found nearly 100 halves of immortals camp belonging to the Polish prisoners of war , Belgian and French , hundreds of soldiers boots , canteens , pipes , shaving gear and other personal effects .Out of the earth from the construction of the expressway also excavated a large number of glass dishes – beer bottles and wine bottles of perfume , plates and vials of drugs and various types of vascular medicine. Most of the objects found at the site of the now defunct pond, which at times served as a makeshift camp garbage .According to Hubert Augustyniak , who supervised the excavations near  , studied by archaeologists area was probably separated from the main camp area sanitary disinfection . dog tags embossed We discovered the foundations of the building, probably a former bath or hydrophone . Within the designated area of research we were able to find traces of the fence , defining the boundaries of the camp – said Augustyniak .In the coming weeks, which prepares the creation of the material finds. Items that have historical value are preserved . In the future probably will go to a local museum dedicated to the history of Stalag , which intends to create a commune  .On the traces of the camp encountered in April in the rabbit during the construction of the S -7 dog tags . Until the completion of archaeological research investment in this section was discontinued . Putting to use the route planned for summer 2012Stalag 1B Hohenstein was one of the largest POW camps in the former East Prussia. On the surface of 35 hectares were over 120 barracks. During the entire war in the camp of nearly 400 thousand . privates and non-commissioned officers . About 55 thousand . prisoners died of typhus epidemics , malnutrition and exhaustion hard work.

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Erkennungsmarke

December 19th, 2013
by andrzej

dog tags

 

Dog tags worn since the war in 1870. Were carried out in various forms, sizes and materials – there was no uniform pattern. Most were small, brass, round or oval, the top had two holes on the carrier string. For immortals quickly stuck the nickname “Hundemarke” (Pl. ticket for the dog). There were also versions for officers as jewelery with precious materials. Was commanded at least that on the dog tags were name and unit: engraved, etched, stamped or hammered. In 1915 was introduced the standard model Immortelle – galvanized plate with dimensions of 5 x 7 inches, above the name of the holder, a division of replacement / training and unit number less than half and the number of branch units – when changing stamped new and old strikeout.

 

In the end of year 1917 came the newest and latest in a model similar to the old in terms of size and material, but now had three long gap in the middle (where the target fracture) and below another hole. This formula has been used by the Reichswehr and the Wehrmacht. Dog tags were worn on a string – his performance was not defined by law, but generally twisted rope used in the respective national colors.

 

 

 

 

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MiG-31 Foxhound ( 4 )

November 21st, 2013
by andrzej

MiG-31photo14

 

Development versions:

 

As was the case with many Soviet combat aircraft , including the MiG -31 and in the course of production has gradually introduced the first improvements. Made the conversion of hydraulic control systems for electronics. Has also been improved by increasing the engine power boost them through minor changes in the configuration of the turbine blades . Introduced a new generation of ejection seats K- 36DM Class 0 / 0 over the older KM- 1M. In the early 80′s plants in Nizhny Novgorod modernized one copy of the MiG- a31 , increasing the internal fuel capacity and simplifying production technology , leading to the formation of the first prototype of the MiG – 31M . Some design solutions implemented in serial aircraft MiG- 31B . MiG- 31B These attempts to enlarge the quantities of fuel were fixed point of the development of this structure. In the late 80′s launched serial production of the MiG – 3IDZ running refueling in flight. Receiver consumption on the MiG- 3IDZ is hidden inside the hull , as the rubber seals can not withstand the heat in the long flight speed of Mach 2.83 . Steps have also been made to extend the stay in the air for 10 hours , and extending the kind of comfort in both cockpits . Much less publicized event than desertion Belenki in 1976, was arrested in 1985 in Moscow Tax Fazotron plant worker who managed to convey to the U.S. part of the documentation relating to the complex S- 155M and RP- 31 radar curtains . Therefore, the Russians took up , as formerly in the case of the MiG – 25P, in a reconstruction of the MiG -31 MiG- 31B . The aircraft was modernized radar RP- 31A Curtains -A of the revised software and improved antenna. Also added the new missile R- 33S longer-range target tracking and head for greater resistance to electronic interference . For self- assembled ejectors traps UW -3A . Significantly improved avionics , data links and navigation systems . MiG- 31B can exchange information with other fighters , as well as ground-based stations . Reach new data link has quadrupled . The aircraft has far- navigation systems, radio systems Kwiotok A -723 -2 and satellite GPS navigation definitely improve reliability in high latitudes .Serial production of this variant was launched at the beginning of 1990 and until 1994 was built a few dozen aircraft . Currently gradually rebuilds the earlier produced MiG -31 variant of the MiG- 3IBS by using podzspołów familiar with the MiG – 31B . MiG- 31M Since 1983 he regularly worked on wspominanym over in a jiffy – 31M , designed for the latest system RP- 31M -M curtains and a new missile R -37 . The first prototype of the MiG- 31M was flown in the center . Zukowski, December 21, 1985 year by the B. Orlov and L. Popov . The most important changes have affected avionics and weapons systems . Modern Curtains -M radar used in Migue – 31M has a range of more than 400km . The new radar antenna has less weight and better performance than the previous one . Curtains -M is also characterized by more complex software , including . The aircraft was larger internal fuel tanks , new engines and a modified cockpit . Fighter takes about two tons more fuel his weight gain of 6 tons, and the drive unit are two engines D- 30F -6M for over 16,500 kg. A characteristic feature of the exterior is dog tags long fairing extending from the cockpit tray with parachutes inhibitors . Curtains -M radar can guide the latest long range missiles R -37 and medium-range R -77 . R -37 missiles are mounted under the fuselage in the amount of 6 pieces , and four R -77 can be mounted under the wings of the airframe . In October 1993 the MiG- 31M as the world’s first fighter shot down a missile R -37 airborne target at a distance of 240km . So excellent fire control system , combined with modern weapons significantly increase the fighting ability of the MiG – 31M , estimated by the designers at up to approximately 2.5 times higher than the initial MiG -31. The first flight of the new version was held in December 1985. To date, produced about 10 copies. Despite the excellent characteristics of the aircraft will not enter the service , because the Russians now plagued chronic lack of resources and the solutions used to Migue – 31M are no doubt very expensive, but some of the solutions to comply with the machines already in linear units . Construction of the MiG – 31M was used as the basis for the creation of a number of essentially derived varieties and specialty . MiG- 31D The construction of the MiG -3 airframe based M such design of a hypothetical satellite destroyer MiG- 31D . The plane was a modified version of the basic airframe . Before nasadami top large inflows of wings , the wings ońcach triangular vertical fins , and a drive unit adapted from the MiG – 31M . It was established as part of the ” Star Wars ” as the bearer of a special rocket developed przeciwsatelitarnej PRZE Wympieł office . Although created several prototypes , however, the desirability of the project was finally challenged . However, he returned to in the mid 90′s , the development of the civil jiffy – 31S . MiG- 31S This is one of the latest draft version of the MiG -31. It is a civil platform for launching into space, small commercial satellites , which is an adaptation of previously planned missile destroyer MiG- 31S . To this end, they provide missile Mikron , which will be light commercial satellite with a mass of up to 100 – 120kg into orbit around the Earth . It is also envisaged the use of the MiG – 31S when fired suborbital project rakietoplanów ARS ( Aerospace Rally System) , designed for training astronauts , test the atmosphere and apparently even for purely commercial and advertising tourist flights . MiG- 31BM Now preparing a new version of the MiG -31 , designated MiG- 31BM , having a model for modernization are in the service of the machines. Aircraft will receive a completely new avionics and weapons . The existing fire control system Curtain -A slot antenna receives upgraded with a range of 300km . This system acquires the ability to track a cell 24 at the same time and guidance to them eight rockets. Systems of the aircraft will also be adapted to the new weapons , including new missiles R- 37M , R- 77M , and 9M96 missiles from the system S -400 anti-aircraft . The cockpit , fitted with a new multi-function displays provide a more comprehensive overview of the situation of the battle for the two crew members to be in part analogous to the cockpit of the modernized MiG – 29SMT . MiG- 31FE It is a variant of the target export variant of the MiG- 31BM . The weapon set significantly enhanced with modern equipment air-to- ground : bullets przeciwradiolokacyjne CH- 31P or przeciwokrętowe CH- 31A , missiles televised CH- 59M or less Ch -59 or Ch- 29T (led TV) or CH- 29L ( guided laser ) . They can also be directed bombs KAB – 500kr or heavier KAB – 1500L ( guided laser beam ) or KAB – 1500T ( directed TV) . MiG- 31FE was in 1999 and in 2000, China’s National People’s demonstrated at an exhibition in Beijing. It shows clearly the efforts of designers aimed to significantly enhance a possible ” package” of a contract for the MiG – 31FE . Sam MiG – 31FE represents some trend to which the U.S. has , inter alia, Grumman F- 14D ” Bombcat ” which set of weapons also predisposes to perform ground attack missions . In Russia, the idea of reconstruction of MiG -31 multirole aircraft not yet received official approval , although more and more talk now about the creation of unified complex assault and data exchange , which may be used on any modern Russian combat aircraft . This may be even more important when there is a pressing need to fill the gap after the end assault aircraft SU- 17M4 and MiG- 27M and equality disparities hardware after the last reorganization. Anyway Standart work on the MiG – 31BM and upgrading to this level of equipment included in the service should maintain a high level of combat value until the complete withdrawal of all machines which , as already hinted above, there will be no earlier than about the year 2025/2030 . Severe interceptors will always play a responsible role in pańswie of such a diverse topography and Russia . Perhaps the flagship of the tasks performed today by the MiG -31 will slowly rest on the shoulders of the lighter SU -30 and SU -34 , characterized by a long range patrol and modern fire control systems . However, in combat missions , where the key requirement is a fast response to the identified risks and disposal of air cell at a very high altitude flight , and at high speed machines with characteristics MiG -31 for the time being, will act as a priority.

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MiG-31 Foxhound ( 3 )

November 21st, 2013
by andrzej

MiG-31photo5

Ranks:

 

Mass production machines interceptor MiG -31 ” Foxhound ” was launched before the end of all tests and test flights . In June and July 1977, Sokol plant in Nizhny Novgorod ( the days of the Soviet Union was the Gorki ) , the first two serial aircraft with serial numbers 01-01 and 01-02 . Aircraft serial MiG -31 ( Izwielije 011) differ from the prototype machines (E- 155MP ) larger wing flaps , tail- less horizontal and przekonstruowanymi air brakes . Between the engines was established additional fairing that removes annoying vibrations of the rear part of the fuselage . Operational readiness of the first machines MiG -31 achieved in 1983 , and the first unit equipped with these planes was 786 IAP ( ” Istriebitiel Awiacjonnij Polka ” – ” Fighter Regiment “), Air Defence ( PWO – ” Powietrznyja Defense ” ) , stationed in Pravdinsk near Nizhny Novgorod , before using an MiG – 25PD . As already hinted above, the West first little news about the new interceptor fighter appeared after fleeing the Soviet Air Force pilot Viktor Belenki the aircraft MiG- 25P . In 1981, the U.S. published the first figure representing a hypothetical vision of how he could look like the MiG -31. In autumn 1985 years the MiG -31 was first photographed by the Norwegian F -16 over the Barents Sea and from then on it was determined in NATO code ” Foxhound ” . Manufacture of machinery MiG -31 in Nizhny Novgorod lasted until April 1994 , when it left the factory halls last, have a copy of the modified aircraft , designated MiG- 31M . In total, this time built around 450 aircraft of this type of all varieties . For the purpose of training crews used two-seat MiG – 25U . MiG -31 and MiG -25 were relatively similar in the pilot , so there was no urgent need for school and a training version of the MiG -31. Just before his fall, the Soviet Air Defence had 10 regiments excellently equipped for a total of about 300 MiG -31. They acted and act indeed to this day one of the key roles in the defense of Russia. They replenished the military units deployed at strategic points all over the Soviet Union , including in Monczegorsku , Gromov , Chotiłowie and Kotlas , shielding the country from the north, in Rostov- on-Don, where exercising the custody of the Black Sea , as well as Morszańsku and Bolshoi Sawino covering industrialized the center of the European part of Russia. On the eastern edge of Russia based regiments in Jelizowo Sokol in Kamchatka and Sakhalin . Near the border with China ‘s regiment in Bratsk , Russia and the central part of the machine with wspominanego patrol regiment in Pravdinsk . However, most likely, at the time the threat of war planes may be ferrying to other airports , mostly in the far north of the country . In the late 80′s and 90′s , the appeal machines TU -128 , SU- 15TM and the withdrawal of MiG – 25PD , the MiGach -31 slept almost the entire burden of the protection of vast areas of the Soviet Union . This was particularly important in the north, where there was the greatest probability of taking the impact of NATO ‘s strategic bombers . As mentioned earlier , the network of early warning systems and air defense is there extremely rare , which , incidentally, very conducive to the entry of low-flying , supersonic bomber machine type B- 1B Lancer . Therefore, the MiG -31 are designed with just such extreme conditions. Therefore, from the above mentioned bases MiG -31 , mostly in the center of Russia , for the duration of the threat of war planes probably will fly to other airports , most likely just to the north of the country. Sturdy , two-wheel main landing gear mounts used dog tags among other things , to facilitate machine handling the snow-covered runways . Due to the local poor radar network MiG -31 had very limited access to the information provided  control guidance on the ground. In this case, check the possibility of autonomous action , especially effective when mutual cooperation in the formation. Using this method the machine moving aircraft 4-6 groups at intervals up to 200/250km . In this way, thoroughly searched was a strip 800/1200km , exchanging vital information via data link . Today , devices enabling such cooperation to be nzastosowane including the upgraded MiG fighter 29SMT . The standardized tactical data exchange system was introduced in the U.S. Air Force at the beginning of the 80′s under the name of JTIDS and JSTARS . For the Russians, the system is still new , and only on completion of the work on this type of modules that may be applied in the near future for all airplanes PWO and WWS . ( see it really worth it )After the final collapse of Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the role of the MiG -31 in many respects considerably decreased. Since the United States ceased to be the ” main enemy ” and therefore in the absence of the threat of a massive NATO air strike , maintaining a large fleet of specialized interceptors in combat readiness was pointless . It was one of the main reasons for which in 1994 closed their serial production . Many machines were shifted to the reserve and reduced the amount of regiments sustained the highest level of combat readiness . On this day, the Russian Air Force is about 350 MiG -31 all versions. The council only foreign member of the MiG – 31 is Kazakhstan , which after the collapse of the Soviet Union accounted for about 30 aircraft from the former 356 IAP . Since the early 90′s, the Russians are trying to , as most of them military equipment , export MiG -31, but so far not found in any country seriously interested in buying them . Among others, it has been proposed Libya and Iraq , which, however, were covered by long embargo , as well as Sudan and China , which, however, decided to export the SU- 27sk . Even in Russia, his role began to gradually decrease. Interest in a jiffy -31 revived after several narrow NATO operations , including Desert Storm and directed against the former Yugoslavia, where cruise missiles were used and the tasks they put on MiGami -31 was to include DISABLE them . Thus, in Russia , these machines will be used in Russia , after extensive renovations and remodeling , even to the years 2025-2030 .

 

 

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MiG-31 Foxhound ( 2 )

November 21st, 2013
by andrzej

MiG-31photo10

Description of the structure:

 

MiG -31 is a heavy, twin-engine , two-seat fighter aircraft built in the classical system with redoubled vertical tail . The structure of the plane is made of stainless steels , titanium and aluminum alloys , the materials are used depending on the temperature distribution derived structures on the fly at speeds naddźwiękowymi . Despite these overall silhouette of the MiG – 25P, MiG -31 airframe is heavily modified. First of all construction materials have changed . So also participate steel decreased from 80 % to 50 % , titanium is 16 % and 30 % by weight of aluminum construction. This was due to better , after many years of service the MiG – 25P, identifying the most vulnerable high temperature of the airframe and the more the selective use of heavy metals. Fuselage the front oval , flattened on the sides for the air inlets of a broad cross-section close to the right angle . For the convenience of operation is divided into the front and rear . Front hull is made in the form of a conical shield of a dielectric material , which was placed at a fixed radar antenna with a diameter of 0.3m thickness ok.1.1 me , the weight is about 300kg . The antenna includes radar, electronic components weighing more than 700kg and a front compartment osprzętowy . On the left side of the front cabin is retractable refueling probe in the air. Under the fuselage , before landing gear are air brakes . The wing leading edge slant of 41 degrees , and the trailing edge of 9.30 degree are short and wide, has an area of 61.2 m On the upper surface of each wing ‘s aerodynamic comb . Slotted flaps span 2,682 m , each tilted by 30 degrees. Darts are spread at 1.7 m Swing up to 20 degrees . With the additional stiffening girder  wings , ailerons can be extended to the end of the airfoil. The four- wing leading edge flaps tilted 13 degrees nose down. Panel horizontal tail span is 8.74 m , respectively , 50.22 degree skew angle and height of the negative -1.25 degrees. Can be rotated clockwise or differentially for longitudinal control in flight at high speed. In the first case the deflection of the tail is +9 / -30 degrees , in the second +1.5 degree. The tail surfaces doubled , parted to the side of 8 degrees , a slant 54 degrees and surface 15.6 m Headset with an area of 2.12 m, tilted 25 degrees. Under the rear part of the fuselage by two combs aerodynamic surface of 3.0 m , diverging laterally at an angle of 12 degrees . The control system MiG – 31 is a classic hydraulic . Main Chassis MiG -31 is an original design. Instead of a single wheel with a diameter of 1300mm with MIGA -25 uses two smaller, KT -175 , measuring 950x300mm dog tags a common wheelchair. Wheel alignment is not typical , as the rear wheel does not move in the wake of the front , but a bit on the outside. This configuration was chosen for two reasons: to reduce ground pressure and because of the lack of space in the fuselage . Chassis front is doubled , the wheels KT -176 660x200mm sizes . Track of the main landing gear is 3,638 m and 7,113 m base chassis is equipped with oil- air cushioning . The power unit is based on two turbofan jet engines Solovyev D- 30F -6 of the 93.2kN each ( with afterburner maximum 152kN ) . Fuel consumption of the motor is nominally 0.72kg/kGh , and afterburner 1.9kg/kGh . The degree of bypass engine is 3:1 , the mass of 2415kg . Engine consists of a five low-pressure compressor compression ratio 3.0, the ten- high pressure compressor compression ratio 7.05 – both axial compressors placed on concentric shafts wsp61nie the corresponding turbine . – Annular combustion chamber , Cruising , with 12 injectors . Two-stage high-pressure turbine with blades cooled , two-stage turbine fan . The turbine kt6rą mixing chamber by exhaust gases from the air part of the low-pressure compressor enters the afterburner where it is an additional injection . Afterburner is finished supersonic nozzle with adjustable hydraulic system with an internal cross-section . The outer casing fixed nozzle geometry. Controls the motor placed underneath the front. Supply of fuel in the tanks inside the hull and ballast vertical is 16350kg . At the outer booms pylons can be mounted fuel tanks with a capacity receivables at 2500l . Plane is equipped with a complex combat system S- 155M . Its key elements are essentially : – Fire control system RP- 31 curtains fitted with a slot antenna with an electronic system scan phase N -007 with a range of 260km to seek equal to the effective reflection surface 16m , and the range of automatic tracking purposes oscillating in the limit of 160 km in the front hemisphere . For the rear hemisphere these numbers are 90 and 70 km . Target tracking range in size from 3m hitting the front hemisphere is 90km. The screen of the radar station at the same time can be a lot of goals, of which 10 are automatically tracked and digital on-board computer Argon -K selects one four most dangerous and independent guides to them four air -to-air missiles R- 33E . Viewing angle of the radar station curtains are 70 degrees azimuth , 70 degrees upward and 60 degrees downward. Curtains RP- 31 is the first in the world , and so far the only one in a fighter jet , used operationally radar station with an antenna with a phase scanning module . It was used because of its ability to continuous irradiation , and in practice allows the simultaneous guidance of missiles for the purpose of very far apart . Electronic scanning radar picked up a new level of demands on the speed of the transmission and processing of information. To meet these requirements in the RP- 31 curtains for the first time that has been used . multiplex signal transmission and processing of data just by a digital computer Argon -15 . So the new salary was so complicated that the required increase of operator crew weapons. ( see it really worth it ) The advantages of a modern radar scanning phase is also more resistant to interference and lack of moving mechanical parts , which have always been the source of a large part of the failure. On the other hand , such radars are much more expensive and require substantially more powerful computers to control . As mentioned earlier, the first generation radiolocator curtains was also very heavy, weighing over 1000 kg , of which there were 270 kg antenna . Curtains was the first and to the appearance of the AN/APG-77 , designed for przysłego F- 22 ” Raptor “, the only one in the world of hunting radar with electronic scanning . – Ciepłonamiernik 8TP , the antenna placed just below the nose the MiG -31. The marching position is half- hidden in the hull and combat position is lowered down , also at a speed of 3000 km / h The pilot uses it in the conduct of secret (or passive ) monitoring the airspace and dp aim when shooting with infrared guided missiles R- 40T and R- 60M . Termonamiernika 8TK angle is at 60 degrees to the left and 6 / -13 degrees vertically . Distance detection of fighter aircraft flying without afterburner is about 40 km ( from the rear hemisphere ) . However, if the enemy uses afterburner, the range increases to about 60km. Ciepłonamiernik can work with radar and get you the preliminary indication of its purpose. A typical way to work all Russian fighters operating in the country’s air defense system is called. komendowe guidance on target , where the plane is then under the control of the land and is remotely guided to the target by ground-based system Wozduch -1M or Luch -2 . It was only in the final phase of the attack , the fighter was derived in a good position to attack , the pilot takes the initiative includes on-board radar and fires rockets . To receive and decode commands from ground-based guidance systems MiG -31 was mentioned 5U15K equipment . Since the MiG -31 Capable of operating in regions where there is a continuous field of radar or radio-navigation systems , which is why the MiG -31 as the first interceptor in the USSR does not require constant assistance from the ground and can be used as an indication półautonomicznie to the earth is temporary or even disposable . The S – 155M yourself then generates a command to search for . It is worth noting that the possibility of autonomous operwania are greater in the case of group operations . In this kind of action six machines MiG -31 flies in the mutual distance of up to 200 km , and their on-board radar scour including a strip of up to 1200 km. Co-operation of aircraft in the group allows automatic exchange apparatus APD -518 and a device to determine the relative position of RadikałOWK , so that the rate of the tactical situation in the operator’s cabin MiG -31 contains information about the location of all fighters in both groups , as well as all detected the targets. Leader of the group is to coordinate the activities of the individual machines. Target detected by one of the aircraft can be shot down if necessary by another MiG -31. What’s more, the MiG -31 can also be used to co-operation with other , lighter fighters , such as the MiG -29 , assigning them targets , and by the way the crew of the MiG -31 alone can make the attack. MiG -31 could advise in this mode, three other machines. – Navigation serve on Migue -31 two systems . For distances up to 2000 km running Tropic , analogous to the west Loran and with precision 130- 1300m . At ranges from 2 to 10,000 km crew MiG -31 uses a system of routes , corresponding to the western Omega , determining the position of an aircraft with an accuracy of 1800-3600 m modules are adapted to operate in areas without continuous terrestrial network and under conditions of magnetic anomalies far North . The MiG -31 armament consists of permanently installed cannon GSz -6 -23 (there are variants of an airplane without a plot and the latest versions can quickly dismantle land on the ground) . It is a 23mm caliber gun sześciolufowe the rate of maksymalmej 6000 rounds per minute , with a supply of cartridges equal to 260 units. The basic equipment suspended aircraft guided missiles are long-range guided półaktywnie radiolokacyjnie R- 33E , placed in a specially adapted hull of the AKU -33 launchers , pushed back from him before firing pyrotechnic projectile with a parallel linking mechanism . R- 33E missiles are specially designed for the MiG -31 ( tried it later on other aircraft , including but not limited to SU-27M/SU-35 ) . They have a mass of about 630 kg and reach of 120 km . Later versions of the MiG -31 can carry R- 33S missile with a range increased to 160 km and with a modernized system of guidance with a greater range search . MiG- 31 can also carry two underwing launchers , known for the MiG – 25P, guided missiles, medium-range infrared R- 40T or R- 40TD , or four short-range missiles R- 60M . Then the plane adapted to carry more modern missiles R -73 ( the two on the bar ), and R -77 . R -73 missile is the primary aircraft used by the Commonwealth of Independent States in the struggle to maneuver , and R – 60M is currently used primarily as a defensive armament of aircraft other than hunting . Roll the MiG -31 is a two-seater , with the crew seats in tandem . It is encapsulated automatically after closing covers. Shields cabins are opened independently of the rear hydraulic cylinders , pyrotechnic charges shot down in an emergency. The rear cabin is equipped with a retractable periscope . Pilots take their seats in the cabin in special air-conditioned garments compensation , similar to space suits , ensuring the pilot to maintain the necessary conditions for the operation of a wide range of pressures and temperatures outside . Initially, the pilots were sitting on chairs KM- 1M , and later built the machine already installed with a much more modern models seat K- 36D class 0/ 0, to ensure the safe to leave the plane by two crew members in the full range of speeds and altitudes .

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MiG-31 Foxhound

November 21st, 2013
by andrzej

 

MiG-31photo8

The history of the airplane:

Mikoyan – Gurevich MiG -31 is the largest and heaviest fighter in the world. It is also the only interceptor with a real event. Although outwardly similar to its predecessor , the MiG – 25PD , in fact it is a completely new design . In the arsenal of the Russian armed forces have always been of great importance heavy long range interceptor aircraft – a class which does not occur in other countries. This is due largely to geographical particularities of Russia, an important szególności its vast and desolate midnight. Network of airports there are very rare , as the positions of radar and anti-aircraft missiles . Starting from the 50′s – the period of intensive development of nuclear weapons and their means of delivery , the Russians , fearing a massive hit U.S. strategic aviation , aircraft developed capable of capturing long-term patrol bomber and the distant approaches to the sheathed objects. The creation of the MiG -31 had a crucial influence U.S. strategic bombers AMSA project , including the Rockwell B- 1B ” Lancer ” , which could , flying at low altitude , make far-reaching strategic impact . Thus, before the new Russian interceptor was challenged to engage targets flying as a large and extremely low altitude . The need for rapid response to the threat required a very high speed flight . In this regard, Air Defense wanted to have a plane reaching result oscillating in the range until 3500-4000 km / h The new machine should also be able to operate autonomously , have a long range flight , a very modern avionics . Also requires the ability to work in a grouping through a system of mutual combat , efficient data transfer . At that time, used in linear units interceptors TU -128 with a range of 2565 km and a practical maximum speed of Mach 1.57 and MiG -25, a maximum speed of Mach 2.83 rows and 1285 km -range supersonic did not meet in a zadowający these conditions and, therefore, could not capture the low-flying B- 1B bomber , because it was created to fight the machines rather a B – 52G and B- 58A , and therefore the objectives of fairly large and flying high. People started to think about the combined advantages of both of these aircraft , so the fighter who is also a rapid and far-reaching at the same time . The challenge has taken several Soviet engineering teams . OKB Sukhoi created interceptor variant of the SU- 24M , which, however, did not meet expectations , because he was too slow and had a small climb . Tupolev ‘s proposal – TU -138 was a modification TU -128 . The aircraft received more ( dog tags ) powerful engines , thinner wings and larger supply of fuel . However, the speed of which was only reached 2400 km / h Also the coverage left a lot to be desired , so that the project finally rejected. Therefore, in 1965, work began on the TU -148 , which no longer had much in common with the TU -128 . A series of projects TU -148 combined cruising speed Mach 3 , but different forms of aerodynamics bezogonowiec , duck, variable geometry wing and double delta . At that time, A. Mikoyan led the team at the time the design work on the various developments of the MiG -25 (prototype E -155 ) , including the E -158 aircraft with variable geometry wings, a maximum speed of 3500 km / h and a range of 5000 km and subsonic supersonic 2500 km . In 1967 he created another project , E – 155M , which is a development of E -158 . Thicket ideas, and optional voltage between design bureaus broke the CPSU Central Committee resolution of 24 May 1968, the recommended final team A. Mikoyan over the continuation of work on your project E – 155MP . The development of complex capture S- 155M Tax enterprises commissioned them . Tikhomirov and Tax Fazotron , a new weapon system – Wympieł plants . In working on the next jiffy -31 designers came from the projects mentioned earlier E -158 and E – 155M . E -158 is a far-reaching development of the MiG – 25P , equipped with a variable geometry wings . Maximum speed was to be more than 3500 km / h, the maximum range – up to 5000 km, and when flying at supersonic speed 2500 km . Since 1967, work on the E -158 continued in the form of E – 155M , which also has a variable geometry wings . However, unlike its predecessor used a single vertical stabilizer and wings of a smaller area . The project also developed a plane striking E – 155MF ( de facto competitor SU- 24M ) , and reconnaissance aircraft E -155 -MR , but none of them will never implemented . Ultimately version of shock and reconnaissance bomber abandoned in favor of the SU- 24M . Sam the E – 158m lasted quite a long time and they started to carry out the first details of its construction . However, it was rejected because during the tests the MiG -23 by the Russians that the variable geometry wings of fighter aircraft is a dead end , in which ” they stuffed up ” under the influence of fashion on the F- 111B . Variable geometry wings are actually difficult to use, have a small TBO , and not enough volume airframe for the necessary fuel and equipment . On the E – 155M failed to achieve the desired rate of climb and ceiling practical . Another version of the E – 155M had an increased wing area , merging smoothly with the fuselage . The control system was to be an active electric , but that designers Mikoyan then found to be too complex and expensive , and thus the project collapsed . In 1969, work began on the prototype E – 155MP , which is the ” hybrid ” E – 155M and E -158 . After weighing all the pros and cons of moving definitively abandoned wing . The E – 155MP again reverted to the MiG -25 airframe with fixed trapezoid wing, making only local improvements. After overcoming this difficulty another problem was the choice of engine. Initially, Air Defense wanted to make a new fighter was even faster than the MiG- 25P, which was already the fastest serial fighter in the world that exceed breakneck speed of 3200 km / h In the E – 155P planned a speed of 3700-4000 km / h motor R- 15BF -300 . However, R- 15B300 engine of the MiG – 25P , characterized by a low compression ratio matched to cruising speed 2500 km / h, is extraordinarily inefficient at subsonic speeds . Meanwhile, the new machine also required a long range at subsonic speed . It was necessary , therefore, to choose a drive unit, which will be economic at subsonic speed . Provide a turbofan engine .  But to make matters worse for the army did not want to give up speeds of over 3000 km / h It turned out to have unrealistic : turbofan engine thrust by increasing the air speed increases slowly and the existing level of technology to achieve with such engines speed 4000 km / h was impossible. Finally, the army agreed to stay at the speed of the MiG- 25P , or 3000 km / h, and for the future MiG -31 was ordered in the band Paul Vl turbo engines D- 30F -6 string without afterburner 93.16 kN ( 9500 lb ) with afterburner 152.0 kN ( 15,500 lb ) . So in 1972, the final design was chosen E – 155MP aircraft , including airframe modified MiG- 25P with two engines dwuprzepływowymi D- 30F -6 . While maintaining the overall layout , production technology and the size of the MiG- 25P, E – 155MP aircraft received a double crew cabin located in tandem . The wings were added in the przykadłubowej inflows and nasal flaps . The enlarged area of flaps and ailerons , which now occupied almost the entire span of the airfoil . Changed the aircraft main landing gear on bicycles, placing before him airbrakes . Increased stiffness of the wings and also the air intakes , which was to allow supersonic flight at speeds near the ground . Much has changed construction materials were less steel and more lighter aluminum alloys and titanium. On September 16, 1975 , Alexander Fedotov raised in the air the first prototype of the MiG -31. Attempts to capture all of the complex S- 155M was launched in May 1977 at a resort in Achtubińsku . In the same period, the U.S. satellite reconnaissance raportujr shooting down the drill- class maneuvering missile flying at an altitude of 60m at a distance of 20km by a rocket fired from the “modified MiG -25 ” flying at an altitude of 6000 m in the course of the trial not without casualties . September 20, 1979 , Mr. Ostapienko and L. Popov successfully ejected after an engine failure on the first serial aircraft , 011 ‘, and April 4, 1984 for an airplane , 201 ” died A. Fedotov and V. Zaitsev . Attempts to capture the complex S- 155M was completed in September 1980 and May 6, 1981 , he was formally admitted to the Military Air Defense Fighter USSR. Series production of the MiG -31 was launched before the end of testing, and operational readiness of the first MiG -31 reached in 1983. This is the toughest fighter in the world, with a full internal weapons and fuel load weighs 41000 kg . Just like the MiG – 25P, characterized by a very low agility , both vertically and horizontally . Due to the MiG -31 is not predisposed to conduct air combat maneuvering . In fact, it is a platform for radar and missiles , but about the actual value of combat , in fact, determines mentioned , ultramodern complex of S- 150M . Its theme is fire control system RP- 31 Veils , which includes a slot antenna with electronic scanning phase N -007 , termonamiernik 8TK , data link and APD -518 guidance system for target 5U15K . The efficiency of the entire system is primarily determined first used in combat aircraft which went into series production , innovative design wspominanej slot antenna . It has a very large range of both search and tracking . It can at the same time advise rocket targets located above and beyond. Veils , however, was very heavy, its mass exceeds ton, so only a carrier could be just the MiG -31. However, its weight and size offset great features : tracking 10 targets at once , four homing missiles long range simultaneously. The RP- 31 was developed under the influence of American work on radar AN/AWG-9 for the F -14A ” Tomcat ” , able to simultaneously track six goals and guiding the missile is not AIM- 54B ” Phoenix ” . Hence the idea of multi-channel Russians decided to implement the system ‘s own interceptor weapons . It was not known , however, that guides the missile radar AN/AWG-9 multiple targets at the same time provided that they are within walking distance of each other. Zasłonowi put the task much more difficult , because he had a track up to 10 targets at once , regardless of where they are , one could fly in the stratosphere , and the other just above the ground , and yet both have been fired . In turn, the struggle for shorter distances are IR guided R- 40T , R- 60, for which the fire control system termonamiernik added . Russian doctrine involved the use of interceptors guidance on the target aircraft from the ground, the ground-based radar . A communication system 5U15K pilot at all times to receive the necessary commands to complete. Only the immediate proximity to the pilot establishes radar contact with the target and fires the rocket. Such tactics were also used for the MiG -25 and TU -128 , but the results are not comparable . In Migue -31 emphasizes the possibility of autonomous action , without the support of the ground. With data łączom APD -518 planes can very effectively work together in a group. Another important element of combat effectiveness MiG -31 ‘s armament . It consists of long range missiles R- 33E ( in later versions of the R- 33S ) , and small to medium-range R- 40T , R- 60, directed infrared . Aircraft carries four R- 33E in the recesses under the fuselage . They are guided in two stages , first the autopilot , and then half- actively by the fire control system . Rocket R- 33E has a range of 160km and can be sent to a target at 10 km above or below the fighter flying at speeds up to 3000 km / h and maneuvering of overloads to 4g . The rocket has a very high percentage of accuracy , about 60-70% of the target shooting maneuvering for maximum distance . MiG -31 can fly at high altitude cruise speed has 2.35 ( 2500 km / h) and has a maximum speed of 2.83 (3,000 km / h) . Because of the warm-up time design cruising speed exceeding 2.65 are limited to 21 minutes – which is not too severe restriction , if you remember that the airplane defeats at this time 1000 km ! At low altitude MiG -31 can fly at a speed of 1500 km / h Ferrying range of 3300 km. More important parameter to destroy boundary is 720 km on the fly at a speed of 2.35 Ma , and 0.85 Ma at 1200 km or 1400 km with no additional fuel tanks or 2200 km with a single refueling in the air. The ceiling is 20600m practical , fully armed . The West first rumors about the new aircraft have arrived in 1976 along with an escape to Japan Victor Belenki on Migue – 25P . For a long time the NATO- wscy analysts thought the MiG -31 for the next version of the MiG – 25P . In 1981, the U.S. Department of Defense published the first , basically accurate, hypothetical figure MiG- 31bis , and autumn 1985 years the aircraft was first photographed by a Norwegian two-seat F- 16B of the Barents Sea . The code NATO MiG -31 was named the ” Foxhound ” .

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MiG-29 “Fulcrum” ( 4 )

November 21st, 2013
by andrzej

MiG-29-2

 

Development versions:

 

Already in the early 80′s , after the experience of testing the initial version of the combat aircraft ( Izwiedije 9-12) , began trials with the new , more ambitious variants of the MiG -29 . The Russians quickly figured out that the successful design of the aircraft gives a really great opportunities . In the mid- 80′s , in connection with the aforementioned tasks wmocno limited scope of the MiG – 29A , which resulted from certain weaknesses of the original version , ie the lack of portability of modern weapons guided air-to- air , and too short-range , there was an urgent need with advanced multi-role aircraft variant , with increased compared to the MiG – 29A combat capabilities . Besides these limitations resulted from wspominanej aircraft previously , initially estimated as the doctrine of the use of light aircraft , fairly cheap and easy to use front fighter . A newer version would be the equivalent of multizadaniowych NATO fighters (such as F-16D/E/F ) and fill the gap left by aging and most have already withdrawn fighter- bomber aircraft MiG- 27 and SU-17/20/22M3 . Meanwhile, a already on 23 December 1980 flew the first modified version , designated Izwiedije 9-13. From the outside, he threw himself into his eyes magnified ” hump ” plane , set the main fuel tank enlarged and additional electronic modules . The aircraft received a new, better radiolocator , modern alarm systems and much expanded range of weapons , mainly air-to- air. In the USSR, a new variant received designation MiG- 29S , NATO and – MiG -29 ” Fulcrum C”. His limited production started in 1990. However , this machine still had a limited range of tasks , she could not because , just as its predecessor, successfully attack ground targets . Thus, February 13, 1985 was the first test flight version of the MiG -29 multi-tasking – Izwiedije 9-14, better known under the designation MiG- 29SM . It’s basically an extension MiG – 29S with the opportunity to attack the cell count . This prototype gave rise to the later upgrades to aircraft which are then implemented in the prototype of the new machine MiG- 29M ( Izwiedije 9-17 ), which is the most advanced version of the MiG -29 . In turn, in 1986 began testing the fighter’s naval version , designated MiG- 29K . Aircraft assigned to the new Soviet aircraft carrier Varyag class and Tbilisi . More information about this option, wrote in a separate article in the Department of Naval Aviation . Here I present a brief description of each of the known development versions of aircraft: MiG- 29UB ( 9-03 Izwiedije ) – Two-seat trainer – combat version . In comparison to the variety of single-seater MiG -29 had a very simplified system for weapons , did not have radar and ejectors aluminum foil package and flares . In addition there was prolonged by about 100 mm . Aircraft built in tandem , the crew members were sitting one behind the other : cadet at the front and the instructor behind. If necessary, the instructor may, at any time completely take over the controls . Aircraft took its first flight on April 29, 1981 year. Production started in 1982 . A total of 197 were built machines of this type, of which about 40 is used by the Russian Air Force . MiG- 29S ( Izwiedije 9-13) – In this version significantly raised the possibility combat aircraft , particularly in air combat . From the outside, the machine stands enlarged ” hump ” , located extra fuel . These changes have major electronic modules and weapons systems . Also improved aircraft design and flight control system . MiG- 29S received a new radiolocator NO- 019M ” Topaz “, with the possibility of simultaneous guidance, two missiles on two different objectives. In comparison with the N -019 radar of the MiG – 29A , any defects predecessor, the new model has been adjusted. Further changes in the electronic gear is active interference station Gardenia -1 , a new information system in -cab warning Almaz , replacing an older unit SOP- 15, and the next version of the device ” its foreign ‘and IFF interrogator . In addition, the version of the MiG- 29S greatly expanded range of weapons air-to- air : The aircraft was equipped with the most modern medium-range missiles R -77 ( with an active homing head ) , directed infrared R- 27T , and the newer varieties of missile R-27 with enlarged range : R- 27RE and R- 27TE . The result is increased flight range (up to 2200 km ) and thus increased takeoff weight ( up to 20,000 kg) and increased weapons payload ( up to 4,000 kg) . These changes MiG- 29S machine was much more serious than its predecessor , the MiG – 29A . The prototype of this aircraft was flown on the 23rd December 1980 by W. Gorbunowa , but its serial production began only in 1990. This variety is built exclusively for the use of the Russian Air Force . The Soviet Air egemplarzy hit a total of 48 aircraft of this version . In 1992, production of the MiG – 29S was stopped for financial reasons . After the collapse of the USSR in the Russian Federation was probably 28 aircraft of the variety and the others were in Ukraine. MiG- 29SD ( Izwiedije 9- 13SD ) – Export version MiG – 29S , developed specifically for the Malaysian . The machine is different from the version of the MiG- 29S slightly modified electronic modules . The aircraft was limited built this system permanently active interference Gardenia -1 and observation systems IRST . Malaysian air force received 16 aircraft of this type in late 1993 and successfully utilize them to this day alongside American F- 16A / B and F- 16C / D. MiG- 29SE ( 9- 13SE Izwiedije ) – Further expanded export version MiG – 29S , originally designed for the formation of the Russian aviation front . This version has also been sold to Malaysia. Just like its predecessor , the changes included electronic blocks . MiG- 29SE is equipped with a modified radar N-019M/ME , electrical system KCA -3 , as well as improved flight control system ECS . SD variant has a higher radio- interference system , integrated with warning sensors . At the request of Malaysia in western model aircraft installed IFF system and tactical navigation systems . Currently, Malaysia is trying to Russia to purchase and equip their aircraft with the latest missile R- 77 . MiG- 29TVK – A specially modified variant of the MiG -29 test for testing on an aircraft carrier . For this purpose the machine is equipped with a special hook to land , reinforced chassis and a set of refueling in the air. Aircraft did not have the mechanisms to make the wings . MiG- 29TVK was the ancestor of the sea is being developed multi-role fighter for the Russian Navy – the MiG – 29K . MiG- 29K ( 9-15 Izwiedije ) – Sea -purpose fighter aircraft designed for the Russian class Tbilisi. This aircraft has been much discussed in greater detail in a separate article published in the Department of Marine aircraft . MiG- 29M ( Izwiedije 9-17) – This is so far the most modern and the most ambitious variant MiG -29 . Russian engineers were tied to his czsu with this design very high hopes . The prototype of this variety was flown in June 1992 . The new aircraft has a redesigned hull with a reinforced structure. He received elektroniczy modern flight control system : a system of artificial stability ( ” Fly- by- Wire” ) and a Tumański modified engines RD- 33K ( originally designed for the MiG – 29K deck ) with increased ciągu.Bardzo modern , complex equipment makes the new fighter extremely versatile . Dashboard MiG – 29M has been thoroughly modernized, primarily through the installation of two new multi-function display , newer style throttle and the upgraded head-up display .( dog tags ) Weapons suspended on eight arms under the wings (where previous versions had their 6 ) In addition, the capacity of weapons has been increased to 4000 kg . A range of new aircraft armament is impressive. In air combat , in addition to the standard missile R -73 and R- 27R , the aircraft received new missiles : intermediate-range R- 27T , R- 27EM , R- 27AE and higher R -77 , as well as long-range R- 27RE and R- 27TE . Similarly is the armament air-to- ground : in addition to the standard undirected weapons can carry modern weapons led : air -to-ground missiles general 25ML CH- CH- 25MTP , CH- 29TE , CH- 29L and bombs targeted KAB – 500T and KAB – 500kr . The combat missions defense could use 4 most bullets antyradiolokacyjne CH- 31P or older CH- 25MP . The machine is also able to operate such missiles, air-to- water type CH- 31A and CH -35 . MiG- 29M thanks suspended fuel tanks is about 1.5 times greater range than their predecessors. New Beetle radiolocator type N -010 /1 is able to locate targets both in the air and on the ground and is able to create such site map. In air combat radiolocator a powerful asset fighter : N -010 radar can simultaneously aim for four rockets in the direction of four different cell. MiG- 29M was also interfering with radio- active systems Gardenia -1 , a new IFF and complex warning systems opromienowaniem rararowym L -150 , which automatically starts the active interference and dropping packets of aluminum foil and flares . Aircraft , together with the SU -35 is the first Russian design , which introduced the principle HOTAS system that is fully automated , which makes the pilot all the steps in the fight against air carries virtually without removing his hands from the throttle and joystick . With these modifications, the MiG- 29M is probably the best lightweight multipurpose fighter plane in the world, surpassing the combat capabilities such Western structures as the F- 16D or even the Swedish JAS -39 Gripen or British Eurofighter 20000 . A total of six prototypes were built MiG – 29M . Unfortunately , the Russian air force did not have the necessary funds at the moment to put into service. And it seems that the majority of which are in the service of the MiG -29 will be modernized rather standard for ” compromise “, a cheaper design : MiG – 29SMT . At the same time it seems quite odd to an intention to continue the work on the much more expensive SU- 27M , the possibilities of combat is not much better than just a modernized MiG – 29M . MiG- 29m2 ( Izwiedije 9-17-2 ) – Despite the fact that the future of the MiG – 29M is very uncertain, but he served as the progenitor of his hypothetical seater versions , designated MiG- 29m2 . Concept two-seater MiG – 29m2 differs significantly from the solutions adopted in Migue – 29UB and its modifications – called MiG- 29UBT . , As in the previous wcielenu ” slits ” for the second cockpit crew member provided at the expense of the bow . This was reflected in such significantly reduced the dielectric cover , so in Migue – 29UB not used radar . The idea used in MIGU – 29m2 points received by OKB trend in the design of aircraft Sukhoi SU- 27UB and SU -30 and its derivatives. This solution predusponuje MiG – 29m2 for tasks that go far beyond the capabilities of not only the school MiG – 29UB , but also the MiG – 2UBT , because new aircraft , like the SU- 27UB two-seat , is able to demonstrate the full value of the combat , similar to single-seater version . It happened unfortunately at the expense of slightly pomniejszongo fuel. Plane was staged for the first time on Air MAKS’2002 and since then induces strong interest . It is known , among others the foundation for his aiming system is a beetle radiolocator N -010 /1 , adapted from the MiG – 29M . In principle it is also used HOTAS . So will the changes predispose to the MiG – 29m2 przprowadzania combat missions unattainable for the MiG – 29UB . It is a full-fledged aircraft , so in addition to carrying out raids is also able to perform the tasks in the service patrol , air defense , and take part in opreracjach wywalczania air superiority . Undoubtedly , as in the case of the MiG – 29M and in connection with the sale of modernized MiG – 29K with the Indian Navy aircraft carrier ” Admiral Gorshkov ” and the fact that indigenous forces put , mainly because of lack of money , the modernization of the already park aircraft , engineers expect primarily upon orders from abroad . MiG- 29SM , SMT ( Izwiedije 9- 14SM , 9- 14SMT ) – It is a modern variant of the MiG – 29S multi-task , largely based on it anyway . Like his predecessor , he also stands out sitting back. The most important changes in stonunku to version A are newer avionics , advanced weaponry , and modified airframe design . The machine was first flew in November 1997. In Migue – 29SMT installed two new Intel 486DX33/40 board computers designed to control the new avionics . In a completely new cockpit mounted two digital LCDs MFI- 68, at the request of the remote display any type of data . Kounikacyjne Devices R -862 , a satellite navigation system and tactical are supported with a small desk with a miniature screen placed on the right side of the cockpit. Modernization has also nachełmowy distributor purposes and translucent HUD display . In this variant also uses the principle of HOTAS . MiG- 29SMT was modernized radiolocator of the MiG – 29S . Radiolocator N- 019MP Topaz has an enlarged coverage , it is very difficult to fault, and could also include create a map of the area , useful for navigation and homing air -to-ground missiles . In the case of a modern multi-role fighter too means of brief radius of action is also very important limitation. In the case of the MiG – 29SMT its flight range has been increased to 2200 km by installing the ” back ” of additional fuel tank . In addition, it received the installation of refueling in the air and the possibility of suspending the two additional tanks under the wings , and one between the engines . In this way, the maximum flight range was extended up to 3500 km . MiG- 29SMT is also equipped with a sophisticated system of communication between other units , like the NATO-led network of JSTARS . As the MiG- 29SMT is a multi-purpose aircraft , major changes have affected a weapon : in addition to the new missile air-to- air (R- 27TE , R- 27RE and R- 77 ) was also a wide range of modern weapons air-to- ground : CH- 29L rocket and CH – 29TE , rockets przeciwradarowe 25MP and CH- CH- 31P , bombs targeted KAB – 500kr , and KAB – 500T , and rocket przeciwokrętowe CH- 31A . Radar board is integrated with all the sensors and infrared cameras placed in the heads of bombs and rockets. Arm mounted on six arms into wings . So, in summary, all of these changes predispose the MiG – 29SMT to perform tasks far beyond the capabilities of frontal fighter MiG- 29A . This variety of equipment allows MiGowi – 29SMT the destruction of the cell count , both stationary and mobile , far behind the front line . Obecie MiG- 29SMT a pattern , a kind of standard for , for a future most of the others in the Russian Air Force MiG -29 is to be upgraded , because the better , and also more expensive Russian MiG – 29M aircraft for the time being does not have the necessary funds . The planned second phase of modernization will reach engineers endeavor to further increase the range , this time thanks to a new , more economical engines Klimov RD -133 . They are modified RD -33 , equipped with inter alia a guided three-dimensional vector sequence, which ensures MiGowi – 29SMT supermanewrowość this level , they represent the SU -37 and SU- 30MKI two-seater . Reference to the desired effect especially at subsonic speeds . The future of such a solution seems to be very uncertain because it is very expensive and requires a new electronic control system . Probably just upgraded MiG – 29SMT will go exclusively for export , while Russian aircraft due to a chronic lack of funds opt for machines with less scope changes. The new engines will be established in the Russian fighters much later when there’s a need to replace worn- RD -33 units . Currently, it is planned to carry out the modernization of about 150 MiG- owned equipment to the construction of class 29A MiG – 29SMT . They fill an important gap formed just after the rolled-back fighter- bomber MiGach -27 and SU- 17M4 , and will assist the aging SU -25 and SU- 24M . It is expected that the acquisition of MiG – 29SMT of tasks shock should address the disparity currently prevailing in the Russian aviation hardware (too many fighters , not enough attack aircraft ) . For the future, developed their tactics of cooperation with the new tactical bombers SU -34 . MiG- 29UBT ( Izwiedije 9-33 ) – The experience drawn from the work on the jiffy – 29SMT used by another machine – Migue – 29UBT ( modernization of combat training- UB ) . The aircraft has to be with założnie oriented , in addition to training the cadets , especially in combat missions . Thus, in contrast to his predecessor, he has received extensive avionics : small wasp radar system placed in the nose , complete with radar graph , placed in a suspended tray . The front cabin is the same as in Migue – 29SMT , while the rear is equipped with a big screen TV . It shows the student’s behavior when flying school , as well as the image of the weapon system when flying combat missions. MG- 29UBT can carry both air -to-air weapons and air televised targeted land , as well as missiles przeciwradiolokacyjne . The airframe was modified as in the case of the MiG – 29SMT – on the back was an additional fuel tank with a capacity of 2020 liters. The future of the MiG – 29UBT is also very uncertain and also must be based primarily on export contracts , since it seems doubtful that in connection with the modernization of the single-seater MiG – 29A , the start of the series SU -34 bomber and a new attack helicopter , the Russians found him funds . So probably only a small amount used MiG – 29UB is upgraded to this standard. MiG- 29OVT – Presented , together with a jiffy – 29m2 experimental aircraft with engines Klimov RD -133 , on Air MAKS’2002 , serving as a demonstrator ciągy vectoring capabilities of the system . In short, thanks to the successful MiG -29 upgrades are probably long remain one of the top fighters in the world . A very successful design of the airframe, combined with modern avionics and weapons make the Russian fighter persists virtually any combat capabilities of lightweight 4 + generation fighters . Its certainly a very high quality in combination with a rather low price , much lower than the best and newest American light fighter F- 18E / F ” Super Hornet ” are still a major export advantages . The Russian aviation adapted to the new requirements of the MiG -29 will be used for a long time because, until 2025 , and perhaps even longer , as his successor LFI ( equivalent of the U.S. Joint Strike Fighter ) is only on the drawing boards , and it is still a long way off .

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MiG-29 “Fulcrum” ( 3 )

November 21st, 2013
by andrzej

MiG-29-1

Ranks

After successful tests in 1982 version of the MiG- 29A project Izwiedije 9-12 ( in NATO code : MiG -29 ” Fulcrum A “) entered into serial production . To this day, variant Izwiedije 9-12 is the basic and most common variant of the MiG -29 . MiG- 29A supersonic fighter aircraft as full a key role in the air defense system of the Russian Federation . Its main task consisted of patrolling designated areas of aircraft, defense against attack from the air major facilities (such as airports or clusters OJSK ) and an additional escort shock machines , as well as air superiority goes together with the SU- 27S aircraft , heavy fighter interceptor MiG- 31 and command aircraft A- 50 . In 1983, the first batch of MiG – 29A hit the fighter units of air defense of the country ( Powietrznyja Defense ) , stationed at the base Kubinka near Moscow. Since then, started to develop the application of new rules of combat aircraft , tactics, their operation and organization of technical and engineering facilities . Since 1984, the new aircraft began to receive the formations of Soviet aviation front ( Frontowoj Awiacjii ) . The new aircraft quickly gained a reputation among pilots and ground staff because of the ease of use . With a new , heavy -type air superiority fighter SU- 27 ” Flanker “, MiG -29 allowed the Russians to overcome technical advantage the U.S. Air Force and NATO. In addition, as a fighter so powerful was quite easy to fly and does not require specialized handling . As the MiG -29 fighter was also a short take-off and landing , so he could use a makeshift airstrips . Western experts for the first time have the opportunity to take a look at the new construction at the beginning of July 1986 , during the air show in town Rissala in Finland. Mentioned earlier fighter regiment Kubinka Air Base sent to the presentation of six aircraft at the disposal of that entity , and since that time a fighter has become a regular participant in the largest and most important air shows around the world. These six aircraft of this unit (ie, four -seater and 2 two-seater ) will soon set up aerobatic team ” Striżie ” or ” Swifts ” , which is also competitive with the team ” Russkie Witjazi ” using machines SU -27. Normally , this group serves in the air defense system around Moscow Military District , so as to present machines belonging to the suspension arms are mounted . Serial production of these machines still continued , and since 1986, MiG – 29, also built for export. In the same year the first MiG – 29A were also outside the USSR – they also frafiły Soviet air units based in the then Eastern bloc countries . The East German regiments equipped with these planes stationed at the base Merserburgu and Wittstock . Another database , which occupied units operating the MiG – 29A is a protocol Budapest and Hungary and Kinskunlahaza Chojna near Szczecin , where in addition to the same MiG – 29A are also stationed SU- 27S . By 1989 the Soviet Air Force provided a total of about 800 MiG – 29A and MiG- 29UB , and approximately 450 further copies of both versions were exported to 12 different countries , both members of the Warsaw Pact , as well as to countries outside it. Thus, among others, about 110 machines have India , 28 – Hungary , 23 – Germany, 22 – Poland 22 – Bulgaria , 16 – Slovakia , and 12 – Romania . Export career MiG -29 began in earnest in February 1984 , when the purchase of these aircraft offered to India . Finally, after a courtesy visit to the Minister of Defense of the USSR in February 1984 years and ordered 44 aircraft made an option to build about 80 more machines in factories HAL . The first 12 machines came to India in December 1986. These aircraft are known in the Indian aviation formations called ” Baaz ” which in Hindi means ” Falcon” . In April 1987 rearmed with two MiG -29 squadrons flying far to MiGach – 21pm . These are the 47 Squadron ” Archers ” and 28 Squadron “First Supersonics ” . Currently, these machines are a counterweight to being equipped Pakistan Air F- 16A / B. Syria was the second country which tempted to contract with MiG -29 . Export version of the aircraft , specially prepared for the dubious ” allies ” in the Far East , MiG- 29A project Izwiedije 9- 12B was characterized by relatively poor avionics and weapons . Syrians planned to take about 140 aircraft of this type, which were supposed to be equivalent Israeli F- 16C / D, F -15B and Netsher IAI ” Kfir ” . It is believed that a major impact on the nature of this contract were to include experience of Israeli- Syrian war , in which Syria suffered hunting lotnoctwo very heavy losses . In July of this year Syrians have received the first 16 aircraft , and the first unit has reached operational capability by the end of 1988. Currently, the MiG -29 are equipped with three air squadrons formed into one regiment . In addition to the aircraft until 1990 in the regiment stayed the Soviet instructors supervising the training, which, in their opinion , moreover, proceeded very slowly. Unconfirmed reports speak of several alleged encounters machines Israeli planes Syrian Golan over the hills . Finally, Syria has provided 42-46 aircraft . Another member seriously interested in a jiffy -29 was Iraq , which in 1987 began negotiations for the purchase of 48 aircraft of this type. The first 18 machines were given at the end of this year, and until the outbreak of the Gulf War the Iraqis received the remaining airframes , which are deployed in bases near Baghdad. Only this conflict greatly undermined the myth circulating the MiG -29 , as the course of events caused even his embarrassment . At least four MiG -29 were precipitated , virtually without a fight , the U.S. F- 15C , one of them hit the ground when performing defensive maneuvers , a further two shattered during landing. A further nine machines were disposed of at the airports and the rest were probably in a group of about 120 planes, which sought shelter in neighboring Iran. Planned by Iraqi cooperation with these machines command aircraft Il-76 equipped with an electronic domestic production Adnan type 2 proved to be totally ineffective . I must admit that very often this is an armed conflict is given as a key example of even cakowitejbezużyteczności Migo -29 współczensym the battlefield . But here falls objectively state that Iraqi aircraft came to operate in extremely harsh conditions of combat , the overwhelming superiority of the Allied forces , both numerically and in terms of electronic means , reconnaissance , command system , logistics , etc. The level of training of Iraqi pilots significantly different from expectations. In this case, it is worth mentioning that a variant of the MiG – 29A exported to Iraq corresponds to said product already Izwiedije 9- 12B , that is destined for countries outside of the Eastern bloc , and so devoid of Doppler radar and a full set of weapons , so surely it can not be classified as a high-quality machine . A similar turn of events took place in the former Yugoslavia , which incidentally was the first European military aircraft buyer described . At the beginning of 1988 to the country delivered 14 aircraft and two single-seater MiG- 29UB machine . They provided equipment stacjonyjącej fighter squadron based in Batajnica . There, for the first time publicly demonstrated it May 15, 1988 , during an open house. Aircraft , also known under the designation lam L -18 supplemented purchased over 30 years ago MiG – 21pm . For the next 16 aircraft order made yet in 1988 , but the outbreak of war in the Balkans , they arrived to Yugoslavia . In 1999 , during spring NATO air intervention in Serbia, which coincided with the de facto division of Yugoslavia, post- Yugoslav MiG – 29A , according to the command of the pact , at least four of them were destroyed. On the other hand, 12 of a total of 30 Moldovan MiG -29 were transported to Yemen where they took part in the ongoing civil war there . According to reports, one of which was downed by antiaircraft fire during a robbery to support ground troops , six have been destroyed by the rebels on the ground , the other five captured . Also, Iran – Iraq’s enemy in the recent prolonged armed conflict , chased the urgent need to replenish much depleted park aircraft , also placed an order for 48 aircraft of this type. Other non-European buyers of the MiG – 29A were Jordan , North Korea , Zimbabwe and Cuba . Koreans bought 25 aircraft in response to equip two squadrons ROKAF ( Republic Of Korea Air Force ) in the machine F- 16C / D. Cuban Fuerza Aerea Revolucjonaria received its first aircraft in October 1989 .( dog tags   Aircraft assembled and flown at the base of San Antonio des Los Banos . Most likely, the 13 machines ordered by Cuba was formed one squadron . The German Democratic Republic was the first country of the Warsaw Pact , which decided to purchase MiG – 29A in May 1988 JG3 two squadrons stationed at the base in Preschen achieve operational readiness . A little known fact is that the German fighters equipped with the apparatus of the domestic production . MiG – 29A project Izwiedije 9- 12A variant specially prepared for the satellite states , also purchased in the spring of 1989 in the amount of 26 pieces the former Czechoslovakia . After the transformation of the country’s geopolitical 10 machines remained in the Czech Republic , the other received the newly created Slovakia . The first MiG – 29A for the erstwhile Ruses aérien but Republici socialist Romania were conducted to Kogalniceau PRZE Romanian pilots who have just completed a training course in the Soviet Union . For January 1990, provided all 12 copies. There they took part in the fighting between the army and the Romanian Securitate because the entity was not at that time fully prepared for combat operations . In Poland at the time of the People’s nine MiG – 29A and MiG – 29UB 3 hit the turn of the year 1989-1990 to 1 Fighter Wing . In 1996, Poland took over from the Czech Republic all 10 pieces of machinery that are already in its possession , as in the Czech Republic not only lacked funds for their maintenance, but also and above all the necessary spare parts. Since the mid- 90s in Poland is considering various modernization projects held by fighters , has become particularly urgent after joining the military structures of NATO , because there was an urgent need to adapt owned MiG -29 to the full benefit of the North Atlantic airspace . Recently pańtwami UW who acquired respectively 12 and 34 machines of this type were Bulgaria and Hungary . In 1994, Hungary bought another 30 machines , and in 1996 received 26 additional aircraft of this type as a form of repayment of the former Soviet Union to that country. Thus, Hungary could almost completely supplant old or aging machines MiG- 21pm fighter , the MiG- 21RW and MiG- 23MF . MiG -29 after the disclosure has been repeatedly presented at international exhibitions such as Farnborough and Paris. Atmosphere sensation and Appropriate fire , catchy advertising porawa contributed significantly to the dissemination of opinions about the very high performance of this aircraft. Even the memorable disaster during the show at the Paris Le Bourget airport June 8, 1989 , she was cleverly used to advertise rescue systems . In fact , saving the pilot Anatlolija Kwoczura stopping of one of the engines , most likely as a result of a collision with a bird aircraft at an altitude of 100m, on top of that during the presentation of flight at high angle of attack at low speed (about 170 km / h) , it was a feat bordering almost a miracle. After the collapse of the USSR ostarecznym in December 1991 a large part of the aircraft MiG -29 at the disposal of sleep longer the Red Army were divided between the newly formed independent republic. Thus, in these conditions, about 80 machines received Belarus ( of which 18 went to Peru ) , Kazakhstan – 36, Moldova -30 (some of them sold off ) , Turkmenistan – 30 , Ukraine – 236 ( about 40 have been sold ) and Uzbekistan – 30 pieces. Therefore, the air force reorganized Russian Federation number MiG -29 in early 1992 has been reduced to about 400. After another reorganization , carried out in 1998-2000 , many of these machines were shifted to reserve a few of them were sold abroad . All other fighters of this type are to be in the near future, thoroughly modernized by replacing blocks of electronic standards MiG- 29SM , MiG- 29SMT and what some of the items may have advanced to a variant of the MiG- 29M . Under this assumption, it is planned to maintain the combat value of these machines at a high level until the exhaustion of the resources of , ie to about 2015-2020 years . Thus, at the present time is the only Russian aircraft serving in the NATO air formations ” shoulder to shoulder ” with other kontrukcjami West. Simulated battles German MiG -29 seized from the former East Germany allowed for a more objective assessment of the aircraft and generally confirmed that the fighting ability of the MiG – 29A ( Izwiedije 9-12) are generally comparable to the leading light of NATO fighter aircraft such as the F- F- 16C or 18C . Then the four of ” postNRDowskich ” machines, including two seater version , have been subjected to comprehensive testing by a special unit in Mancing EK61 , which confirmed its usefulness ( as was the aircraft SU- 22M4 , which after thorough inspection it was decided to leave the service ) for further service in the German Luftwaffe . Currently, aircraft MiG -29 is in the Air Force as many as 21 countries and we have to admit that this is one of the most famous , popular and respected military aircraft around the world. Interestingly, the United States has about 25 pieces of machinery , purchased mainly from Moldova. They serve probably as a potential opponent in school improvement Top Gun pilot . In addition, it is worth noting that the MiG -29 because of its fantastic własniości volatile and combat , has become a real favorite with many aviation enthusiasts . To date , despite the above-mentioned number of accidents on the main part continuous air shows worldwide. It is estimated that by 1992 produced a total of 1216 single -seat MiG -29 and 197 school- fighting equipment and MiG – 29UB . Since the beginning of 1992 the fighter is produced only for export , mainly due to the current difficult financial situation in the Russian Air Force. It is expected that gradually upgraded to the new standards MiG -29 will be used in line a long time , perhaps even until 2020 , as his successor : hypothetical MiG- 39 and MiG MiG MFI and LFI are still in the prototype phase or project. It is possible that his successor will be light , built jointly with China, folk , light fighter PAK FA , or proposed by the Mikoyan lightweight fighter I- 2000 . So, in summary, the MiG -29 will be a long time enjoyed the reputation of one of the best fighters in the world . A very successful design and aerodynamics of the machine , along with a very modern avionics and weapons systems mean that the Russian fighter in the latest versions of the MiG- 29M and MiG- 29SMT , which will be discussed later in this study is comparable with the most modern , multi-purpose NATO fighters belonging to the so-called . intermediate generation 4 + (which in some aspects generation of transition between machines 4th and 5th generation ) , such as the American F -16C / D Block latest production series 52/54 or even the Swedish JAS- 39A Gripen . It is also worth mentioning that the office Mikoyan constantly expanding its offer for the MiG – 29 is not only the building of new varieties , but also by offering cheap and also very successful proposals for modernization , including both navigation systems and weapon set . In this way, the recently rebuilt including part of the machinery of Romanian MiG- 29A ( 9 -12A Izwiedije ) the standard MiG- 29AR “Sniper “, giving him three multifunction displays and western components and electronic units , including tactical TACAN navigation system , allowing them to operate in the airspace of NATO . There are also plans for rebuilding the Polish machines , but so far unknown to the details of any agreements. In general, a very high possibility of the latest MiG – 29SMT and MiG – 29M , coupled with a fairly reasonable price, is in itself a very important asset of declining export now Mikoyan design office .

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MiG-29 “Fulcrum” ( 2 )

November 21st, 2013
by andrzej

MiG-29

 

Description of the structure:

The general technical characteristics present in the primary example , the most commonly found version described aircraft – MiG – 29A ( Izwiedije 9-12) , also operated by the Polish Air Force . As I mentioned above, the assumptions engine builders have become an effective counterweight to the U.S. F- 15 and F- 16, which included just to equip NATO aviation . However, unlike the F -16 ” Falcon “, which was designed as a versatile fighter , the MiG -29 ” Fulcrum ” was the front light fighter , having used primarily for wywalczania air superiority and attack aircraft escort . The fighter is able to operate at any time of the day or night , with very adverse weather conditions, as well as in conditions of strong radio-electronic combat . Aircraft built high-wing configuration , with double vertical stabilizer and the wing band pass . Inflows wings bevel angle of 73 degrees, the lift of -3 degrees incline leading edge 42 and trailing edge 9 degrees are related structurally and functionally to the hull which will allow kind of get the effect of their confluence with the machine. They over run in the central part of the integrated fuel tanks with a total capacity of 700 liters. Generally, the MiG -29 airframe is made primarily of metal , including aluminum alloy ( Duralumin and Litala ) and magnesium , and titanium. However, in order to reduce its weight in certain areas also uses a special high strength composite materials . The individual elements of the structure are connected by rivets or welding arc . The basic structure of this aircraft was made in the semi-monocoque metal system and steering components used plates glued honeycomb filler . Radio systems deflectors are made of permeable materials for electromagnetic waves. MiG -29 is known for its very high aerodynamic excellence , combined with good engines give it incredible maneuverability, much better than the above mentioned post. This variety has been built in three podseriach , in each of them uses small changes. MiG -29 has two turbojet type Tumański RD -33 of the 8300 kg each. Supply of fuel in internal tanks is 4640 liters. Despite the initial problems przedseryjnych prototypes , the abovementioned drivetrain after rigorous correction proved to be extremely successful. Its advantage is a very simple design and relatively low fuel consumption . Also, the service is not too much trouble natręcza ground staff . This can confirm the fact that the exchange of one of the drive unit by a qualified engineer is no longer than 45-50 minutes ( for comparison – the F- 16, such an operation would take about 10 hours). Russian fighter can in addition to fly with only one engine running. Drive Tumańskiego gave him a high speed both in level flight and during the climb , and great acceleration, very useful in direct combat . MiG -29 is capable of immediately after starting to rise straight up , in addition, gradually picking up speed , and perform death-defying stunts (including the famous ” slide on tail ” ) . Noteworthy is designed very carefully and with great ingenuity system to the engine air intakes . In addition to the main inlets located under the fuselage , also built over the base of each of the wings additional slot openings . As powerful system effectively prevents the engine of any stones or dust from the runway . The chassis is raised, the system trójpodporowym . Shin chassis fitted with a double front wheel KT- 100 with dimensions of 570x140mm . , And the main landing gear of the oil- air cushioning , equipped with tubeless tires KT -150 with dimensions of 840x290mm . So successful system air intakes and a solid chassis predispose ” dwudziestkędziewiątkę ” to use the makeshift airstrips . Russian konstrukorzy ultimately chose not to install the electronic control system ” fly-by -wire” , equipping it with a classic hydraulic flight control system . Perhaps this was done so that the Soviet work on these modules were still much less advanced than those conducted in the United States . Thus tail is pivotable by means of mechanical systems with hydraulic . Another , perhaps the most important innovation in the new plane was quite modern , integrated fire control system and the detection and tracking of the cell. It includes : – A complex radar RLPK -29 ( Radiolokatsyjonnij Pritselnij complex ), including Doppler radiolocator N -019 ” Topaz ” ( sometimes also designated S -29 ) with the ability to ” look down / shoot down ” (ie, cell capture flying below the plane , on the ground ) . The system is controlled by two on-board computers C100.02 -02. Search range in the tracking mode childbearing (depending on the target size ) ranging from 70 km (if the purpose is detected fighter ) to a maximum of 140 km ( for example, if the contact is a bomber B- 52). The device is able to track up to 10 contacts at a time with automatic selection of priority by the on-board computer . Maximum radar scan cone is 68 degrees to the sides and, respectively 60 degrees up and 38 down. Unfortunately, radar has some serious limitation , namely, can also direct the only one missile R- 27R to one specific purpose. In addition radiolocator N -019 ” Topaz ” after locking the selected destination is unfortunately not able to observe other objects. – Opto-electronic and navigational and combat system OEPrNK -29 ( Optiko – Elektronnij Pritselno – Navigatsjonnij complex ) , współpracyjący with radar onboard . The complex comprises successively electro- optical tracking system cell OEPS -29 , the navigation system SN -29 , a digital computer C- 100.02 -02 weapons control panel SUO – 29m2 , and data presentation system SYel – 31E2 , working closely with the modern display a translucent HUD ILS -31, mirrored by a factor of IPW -2 . Electro- optical system OEPS -29 ( Optiko – Elektronnij Pritselno Sistema ) has been quite successful. MiG- 29 is the world’s first fighter having this type of module . It allows you to detect and track a cell in passive mode without using radar . With it, you can not locate the aircraft through the interception of radio waves emitted by the radar . And because , as I mentioned above , it is a passive system , so use it to the crew of enemy aircraft, even though active warning devices do not have the faintest idea that is being tracked . The system has a range of 35 km . The system is integrated with a laser rangefinder KOLS – 29 and nachełmowym distribution system and to identify the cell tight – 3um , allowing the fight bezpośredeniej to refer to the target missile deviated up to 60 degrees from the axis of flight fighter . It is a very effective weapon in a rich arsenal of fighting MiG -29 , especially when used with reliable air -to-air missiles R- 73, with the opinion of the best in its class. The navigation system includes the SN -29 ARK -19 radio compass , an automatic landing system A- 323 , autopilot SAU -454 signals and a receiver with a marker at the airport A -611 . Additionally, the equipment includes instrument panel multifunction color display MFI -35 with a system diagnostic SCREEN , desktop CP -31 control screen speedometer US- 1600- 1 , tachometers ITE – 2TR engine , the fuel gauge ISTR4 -4- 2E- 01 and the distribution system PUR -board weapons . The aircraft contained in the analog communication system and data transmission E502-20/04 Turquoise includes: a communication device employed interchangeably in VHF / HF R- 862 , IFF ” us / them ” type of SRO -2 working with IFF interrogator system type SRZ -15 . Unfortunately, the analog data link used in Migue -29 are quite weak compared with those used in aviation NATO universal digital data transmission systems JTIDS and JSTARS ( tactical data exchange between all those who are able to use them ) that are installed m.in . the plane F- 16C / D. This gives the pilot a large informational advantage over the F- 16C pilot the MiG -29 , as it can independently and quickly find themselves convenient to the moment of attack . – Kompeks warning SIREN -3 containing a warning system opromienowaniem SPO- 15M Bierioza , working with two kickers flares and aluminum foil K- 11E . Each tray contains the 30 standard -type flares PPI- 26 and a film PPR -26 . There is also the possibility of suspension under one of the pylons standard tray -type active jamming SPS -141 . Uzbrojemiem basic MiG -29 into air combat missiles have become air-to- air medium-range R- 27R ( directed semi- active radar ) missiles R-60 ( directed passive infrared ) , later superseded by a much more modern R -73 ( guided passively IR), with integrated thrust vectoring system and additional control surfaces . The pilot training school are missiles UZR and UZR -60 -72 . Today, more and more began to use the newer medium-range missiles R- 77 . All equipment is mounted on pylons under the wings 6 . Cannon armament of GSH- 301 with a caliber of 30 millimeters. This weapon , which , in practice, the derivative plot 2A42 type of transporter BMP-2 , charakteyzuje very high prarametrami . Initially , even during testing , were caused her a lot of trouble , stuttering often after several strałach .( dog tags  )Due to the very high accuracy and the ability to plot targeting a number of modes, including using the on-board computer automatically metering amendment was that ammunition , amounting to 100 units is quite sufficient. Decided to its practical application . The missile , compared to the same six – barrel missile plot M -1120 Vulcan 20mm caliber , which is the standard weapon of U.S. fighter -board is 3 times larger and has about 1.6 times the initial speed. In addition, the aircraft can carry a limited extent, due to its particular purpose , unguided armament air-to- ground , such as unguided missiles S-5 , S -8 , S -13 , S- 24 and S -25 , and also charge a bomb with a total weight up to 3000 kg ( including general purpose bomb FAB series , and a series of bomb ZAB , PB , OFAB , containers and KMGU RBK ) . The entire set of arms is mounted on six underwing pylons , including four small APU – 68 and two larger APU -470 . The Achilles heel of the aircraft ‘s flight path is quite small , amounting to 1430 km . However, you can enlarge it by additional external fuel tanks. The 1500 liter tank zaintalowaniu type PTB -1500 between the engines , aircraft range increased to 2000km . You can also install additional two 1100 liter tanks type PTB -1100 on underwing pylons , but this time at the expense of weapons. So the range of machines with 3 additional tanks would be around 2800 km . The fighter is equipped with automatically lockable samohermentyzującą the cockpit . Air conditioning system is used , depending on the prevailing conditions, cold air and warm chords supporting the spężarki engine . The cockpit ejection seat installed K-36DM/2-06 standard , used also in several other Russian aircraft (such as the SU -27 ” Flanker ” ) . In an emergency situation , after pulling the handle doubled , the pilot is automatically imported into the optimum position and immobilized . It even has the ability to automatically eject without pilot intervention . This is perhaps the best model of the pilot’s seat in the world. Effectively work with any speed attained , and virtually any altitude .

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