Dog tag with Prudnik

April 18th, 2014
by andrzej

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Signs of identity appeared in the armies of Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century. The German army during the War of St . developed model Immortelle ( dog tags ) in 1917 , which with some modifications in the Bundeswehr has survived until today.German dog tags from World War II . belong to objects quite often qualities found and collected by military seekers . They can be found on the battlefields , especially in areas where disarmed the ” in the wild ” small groups of soldiers who want to avoid Soviet captivity. On the ground Prudnik Dog Tags Wehrmacht , SS , police, Volkssturm and other paramilitary organizations get to the areas that were on the front lines or remained in German hands until the capitulation of the Third Reich.Presented next dog tag from Neustadt O / S ( Prudnik ) dates from the time of World War I . This is an earlier model , which provided full personal details . In this particular case it is KURT BURKHARTT born October 4, 1895 , the soldier was drafted into the two spare Battalion 62 Infantry Regiment in Prudniku in Upper Silesia and stored in the registry under the number 8 seaterInterpretation shortcut JB or IR ( Infanterie Regiment = Infantry Regiment ) is a trivial problem for explorers . According to experts on the subject of Alexander Rostock JR abbreviation is often mistakenly read as Jäger Regiment which regiment of riflemen ( jegrów ) . On the German dog tags Jäger name was usually shortened as JAG . or Jg. The surest way to verify the name of the unit is to check the number in the studies of the German army.In most cases the identity of the German characters appear the names and numbers of school units and spares, in which a soldier held training before being sent to the front. By law the number of the backup ( the school ) should be identical to the number of combat units . However, often former soldiers spare units were sent to other units. Especially then , when the situation at the front was critical. To fight as infantry pchano everything available: convalescents , recruits , cadets NCO schools , especially soldiers in other specialties .The author of this note is not entirely sure if other data on the dog tag means the place of residence of soldier in Dresden Street. Stars of the Leipzig No. 54 ( Leipzigersterne ? ) , Especially if properly translated the name. If someone correct me , I’ll be grateful to him .Dog tag Burkhartta Kurt was found along with others, and half of the third in the training ground and a large training camp (as well as a camp for prisoners of war, two world wars ) in Łambinowice ( Lamsdorf ) . All three dog tags related Prudnik and 62 Infantry Regiment . As has been found in this place, probably formed part of an archival deposit graph . A number of returning from the bondage of the former German prisoners of war passed here in the years 1919-1922 in quarantine after repatriation.Signs of identity in the case of finding them , along with the remains of soldiers usually are only able to identify the dead . They also allow you to notify the family of missing without a trace . In this particular case the dog tags from Prudnik were found “in bulk ” . So there was no sense of notification of relevant institutions involved in the identification and burial of the remains of German soldiers ( the Foundation “Remembrance ,” or Deutsche Dienststelle ) .Michael from Gogolin thank you for sharing associated with the history of the garrison in Prudniku finds. Another dog tag with Prudnik was exhibited recently at an online auction eBay.I guess we will never know what was the fate of the soldier Burkhartta . Presumably, I survived the war. At the end of World War II was about 50 years. According to the decree of Hitler of 25 July 1944 will be available for service in one of the 4 categories of personal militia ( Volkssturm ) . Perhaps you live somewhere descendants of his family. Life and history are full of secrets. Only a small part inherent in found objects manages to unravel the mysteries of the end. Maybe this time to the authors ‘ archive explorer ” smiles happiness .

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Dog tag American pilot..

April 18th, 2014
by andrzej

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Seventh October 1944 William H. Flannery , an American bomber pilot had to drop bombs on the factory gasoline in the Police.Approximately 13 hours the machine has been hit by the Germans. The bomber crashed while later around Lagenbergu , today the Holy . – History of the bomber was interested in January – says Dariusz Szaliński , president of the Association of Police ” Treasure” , which brings together enthusiasts of the history of this region. – In the vicinity of dances found in fact immortal American soldier . We contacted the association of bomber crews , which explains the fate of U.S. soldiers missing in action during the last world war activities . It turned out that Lieutenant John G. Schloendon a B17 bombardier said . His name is on the plate missing on the American military cemetery in the Netherlands.Americans today explain the fate of his soldiers , do not save it money and time. Last Thursday, the Police came to the members of this association .- John A. Gray and Cory D. Damm told about the history of the aircraft , the fate of the crew, about what they were able to determine – continues Jacek Porzeziński the Association Treasury . – So far, they have failed to explain the fate of , and determine the possible burial place about 30 U.S. soldiers missing in actions of war in Western Pomerania .With a 10 – person crew still missing are recognized : pilot William H. Flannery , co-pilot Jewel W. Lowrey , Duane E. Stowits radio operator , flight engineer Lloyd K. Lagasse and of John G. Schloendon , whose dog tag found in the surrounding gum .Navigators Paul Moll dog tags , Morris Arnovitz , Raymond G. Moon, waist gunner George Les Petty and the tail gunner Walter C. Strosser were captured .- The Americans were able to determine , based on the testimony of soldiers bombers and other documents preserved in the archives of the German , that one of the soldiers bomber jumped out of a machine that previously had been hit – adds Dariusz Szaliński . – He did not open his parachute . Whether or jumped , or was injured at the moment, or kicked him catapult , is not known . He could die falling to the ground, he might as well be dead fatally hit in a bomber . These are only hypotheses .Americans came to the Police to determine the burial place of the bombardier Schloendona . Visitors from the United States have one track . Located the tomb , where perhaps a soldier buried their army.

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Dog tags in Battlefield 3

April 18th, 2014
by andrzej

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Battlefield 3 has introduced a new feature that allows the player to broadcast more unique appearance of his dog tags. Allow not only to publish your nickname or statistics, which should boast. Visualize another in a very impressive way our style of play thanks to a very good and realistic sygnaturkom made. We managed to find a fairly comprehensive list of prints depicting some of the immortals that can be unlocked during the game. This is another nice Bajer, which significantly extend to many adventures with this title. Below you can see them. Warn, however, that it does not have to be a complete list. The game can be found much more metal to get.

 

As disclosed by the creator of the cycle in the upcoming Battlefield 3 they pass significant changes – will present not only the name of the dead, but his stats. In the latest entry on the official blog series Alan Ketz, a senior multiplayer designer in the studio DICE, revealed that Battlefield 3 dog tags are specific business card players. We will be able to choose their appearance and the fact that statistics are presented.

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Battlefield 3 Dog tags personal “calling card” players

April 18th, 2014
by andrzej

 

battlefield-3

Dog Tags is a cool element of variety to the game on the network in the Battlefield series – players can collect them, “breaking” them from the bodies of dead enemies. As disclosed by the creator of the cycle in the coming Battlefieldzie 3 they pass significant changes – will present not only the name of the dead, but his stats.   In the latest entry on the official blog series Alan Ketz, a senior multiplayer designer in the studio DICE, revealed that in Battlefield 3 Dog Tags are specific business card players. We will be able to choose their appearance and the fact that statistics are presented.

In Battlefield 3 dog tags go beyond the mere showing name [player]. We have hundreds of versions that can be your showcase. Every time you kill an enemy, they will see your dog tag. It’s your business card – a place where you can brag; Dynamic dog tags can show how good you are at using a knife fighter, present even your personal style of play.

 

Changes will occur also in the process of gaining dog tags from the bodies of our victims. To them “break”, will have to be a brutal blow to kill an enemy with a knife, overlapping him from behind, not giving up when it detected. Such attacks have a look “great” – mainly thanks to the animation-inspired series of FIFA.

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Missing in southern France

December 19th, 2013
by andrzej

doogtags

 

August 15, 1944 , the U.S. First Airborne Division Parachute Task Force ( FABTF ) was dropped west of Nice, in southern France. Then there was a large-scale landing of Allied troops on the beaches between Cannes and Toulon .A few days after landing FABTF given the task moves toward the Italian border , and thus the liberation of parts of Nice. German units defending the area was 148 Replacement Division , made up mostly of troops from Silesia. The German troops were not strong enough to stop the Allied advance towards the border with Italy. Their task was only to delay the march of the Allies and to give time to prepare a better defense in the high mountains at the border. From 20 August to early September , FABTF go towards the border. German troops were occupied defensive lines only on particularly favorable positions , and after a few hours of fighting defense retreated .One such defensive skirmishes took place near Villeneuve -Loubet , a small town in which I live . The famous unit called the First Special Service Force ( FSSF ) , an elite team made up of Americans and Canadians come close to Villeneuve at night on August 24 . Germany prepared an ambush by the roadside , wounding several soldiers. It stopped the attack FSSF that day. Resumed until the next night. On the morning of August 26 Villeneuve was surrounded and attacked simultaneously from the front and from behind. Several German soldiers have been killed , but dozens of surrender. One group , which consists of about 30 soldiers led by a Pole , surrendered to the French teenager , who told them that it makes no sense to fight anymore .In the afternoon, Aug. 26 Germany attempted to counterattack on Villeneuve , but their allied soldiers carefully waited in hiding and were able to easily reject the enemy , killed in battle a few wehrmachtowców further . A Frenchwoman , a witness fights, saw Polish soldier running toward the Allied soldiers with a white flag , which was shot in the back by a German officer . Similar incident described in the report Americans and Canadians . Many Poles wanted to give up, but the officers were using all available means , I would stop them .When I asked older people living in Villeneuve about this event , I was very surprised by the findings : ” Why do you want to know? Are you looking for the Germans ? ‘. I discovered that all those German soldiers died Aug. 26, 1944 , they were buried in a mass grave in the woods right next to Villeneuve ! Body initially left lying on the ground, but after a few days had something to do with them as it began to decompose . Local residents dug a big grave and buried in the body. For some unknown reason no one has ever tried to find the grave after the war. Since I am a medical student and have always been fascinated by forensic science , I decided to find the grave .The most difficult task was to accurately determine its position when it really was not sure if he really exists. But I made it to all older people and everyone was asking the question what he knows about the tomb . Everyone said something different , so I had to choose the most reliable relationships . Some repeating things they had heard from others, but I needed to eyewitnesses .An older man , more than 90 -year-old , he worked in the field when the grave was dug in 1944 told me that the bottom was between fairly old tree , a small river . I tried to watch the ground, explore the metal detector , view aerial photos , but nothing resulted because the area looked normal, and aerial photos also did not ask anything . Research metal detector was difficult, because the whole area is full of metal scrap inherent in the ground. So I started to dig a meter deep pits in random places after dark. After digging ten of the pits I finally found a human bone. I was very pleased and surprised but also shocked because I did not know what to do now . I did not expect that I really find German soldiers buried in a mass grave in the middle of the Côte d’Azur . I was not sure what to do now .Finally, after a long series of thoughts and discussions , organized jointly with the exhumation Volksbundem ( German People’s Association for Care of War Graves ) . They organized everything so that was an official character , but I was allowed , and the archeologist and kilkorgu medycyjny students participate in the work . Dug grave 18 and 19 October 2006 In total we found 14 bodies in it lying at different random positions. They were just thrown into the pit and covered with soil . Some bodies were lying on his back , the other on your stomach . Many items were next to corpses – were helmets, ammunition belts, coins , combs and buttons . An interesting fact was that only one body lacked shoes , and all were deprived of bayonets (even though the bars were the vagina ) . French civilians took everything that could be useful . The tomb was also a second , loose pair of shoes that have been removed from the legs of the fallen soldier , and then thrown back into the grave. I thought it rather odd , until I looked exactly these shoes . They were cut into fragments . Apparently, a Frenchman wanted to take for himself footwear , but noted that it is destroyed , so he resigned from his plan and threw them back to the grave.A few are in grave helmets were damaged by shrapnel or bullets , allowing us to determine the direct cause of death. One of the helmets was particularly frightening because a large piece of the projectile fragmentation went exactly by that helmet , dog tags the way blew the head of the owner.Other discoveries were poignant ring on the finger of one of the killed and several immortals . One was particularly surprising. He was found stuck in the bridge of soldiers , with a bullet hole in the middle of the plaque.In total, we found seven immortals , which we sent to Berlin. It turned out that one of them is too damaged to read the inscription , while the second could not even decipher . Germany used the immortals with the code numbers instead of the names of the soldiers , so that when a document containing the assignment of a number konkretnymu soldier has been lost , it is not possible to identify the man. I was very disappointed that the dead soldier can not be identified by such technical detail .Employees WASt in Berlin were able to determine the personalities of five soldiers based on their dog tags , and searching archival documents also found the names of two more soldiers declared missing in the area of Villeneuve . It was, therefore , they had to wear them soldiers , whose dog tags could not be read. In 2007, all the bodies were transferred to the German ball chainsWar Cemetery in Berneuil in France.As mentioned earlier, 148 Replacement Division was composed mainly Silesians. Most of them were either very young or very old as soldiers . It turned out that among the seven identified four soldiers came from Upper Silesia , two from the Czech Republic , and the only one from the land belonging to Germany today – from a small town lying at the current Polish border.After sending a series of letters , with the help of Volksbund , made contact with members of the families of two soldiers from Silesia and one from the Czech Republic . They were all very glad , to learn the fate of missing loved ones . The son of one of the soldiers came to Villeneuve- Loubet in 2008 to meet with me and see previous burial place of his father. Remained in place for a few days, and one evening , just before leaving , he told me something that made my search suddenly seemed to make sense to me : ” Look here … I lost my father at this point , but I gained a friend … ” .

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Old German dog tags

December 19th, 2013
by andrzej

About a hundred soldiers of immortals and thousands of personal items belonging to the former German prisoners of Stalag 1B Hohenstein War II , discovered during archaeological work in the construction of the S -7 near Olsztynek .When going to the end of October archaeological research found nearly 100 halves of immortals camp belonging to the Polish prisoners of war , Belgian and French , hundreds of soldiers boots , canteens , pipes , shaving gear and other personal effects .Out of the earth from the construction of the expressway also excavated a large number of glass dishes – beer bottles and wine bottles of perfume , plates and vials of drugs and various types of vascular medicine. Most of the objects found at the site of the now defunct pond, which at times served as a makeshift camp garbage .According to Hubert Augustyniak , who supervised the excavations near  , studied by archaeologists area was probably separated from the main camp area sanitary disinfection . dog tags embossed We discovered the foundations of the building, probably a former bath or hydrophone . Within the designated area of research we were able to find traces of the fence , defining the boundaries of the camp – said Augustyniak .In the coming weeks, which prepares the creation of the material finds. Items that have historical value are preserved . In the future probably will go to a local museum dedicated to the history of Stalag , which intends to create a commune  .On the traces of the camp encountered in April in the rabbit during the construction of the S -7 dog tags . Until the completion of archaeological research investment in this section was discontinued . Putting to use the route planned for summer 2012Stalag 1B Hohenstein was one of the largest POW camps in the former East Prussia. On the surface of 35 hectares were over 120 barracks. During the entire war in the camp of nearly 400 thousand . privates and non-commissioned officers . About 55 thousand . prisoners died of typhus epidemics , malnutrition and exhaustion hard work.

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Erkennungsmarke

December 19th, 2013
by andrzej

dog tags

 

Dog tags worn since the war in 1870. Were carried out in various forms, sizes and materials – there was no uniform pattern. Most were small, brass, round or oval, the top had two holes on the carrier string. For immortals quickly stuck the nickname “Hundemarke” (Pl. ticket for the dog). There were also versions for officers as jewelery with precious materials. Was commanded at least that on the dog tags were name and unit: engraved, etched, stamped or hammered. In 1915 was introduced the standard model Immortelle – galvanized plate with dimensions of 5 x 7 inches, above the name of the holder, a division of replacement / training and unit number less than half and the number of branch units – when changing stamped new and old strikeout.

 

In the end of year 1917 came the newest and latest in a model similar to the old in terms of size and material, but now had three long gap in the middle (where the target fracture) and below another hole. This formula has been used by the Reichswehr and the Wehrmacht. Dog tags were worn on a string – his performance was not defined by law, but generally twisted rope used in the respective national colors.

 

 

 

 

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MiG-31 Foxhound ( 4 )

November 21st, 2013
by andrzej

MiG-31photo14

 

Development versions:

 

As was the case with many Soviet combat aircraft , including the MiG -31 and in the course of production has gradually introduced the first improvements. Made the conversion of hydraulic control systems for electronics. Has also been improved by increasing the engine power boost them through minor changes in the configuration of the turbine blades . Introduced a new generation of ejection seats K- 36DM Class 0 / 0 over the older KM- 1M. In the early 80′s plants in Nizhny Novgorod modernized one copy of the MiG- a31 , increasing the internal fuel capacity and simplifying production technology , leading to the formation of the first prototype of the MiG – 31M . Some design solutions implemented in serial aircraft MiG- 31B . MiG- 31B These attempts to enlarge the quantities of fuel were fixed point of the development of this structure. In the late 80′s launched serial production of the MiG – 3IDZ running refueling in flight. Receiver consumption on the MiG- 3IDZ is hidden inside the hull , as the rubber seals can not withstand the heat in the long flight speed of Mach 2.83 . Steps have also been made to extend the stay in the air for 10 hours , and extending the kind of comfort in both cockpits . Much less publicized event than desertion Belenki in 1976, was arrested in 1985 in Moscow Tax Fazotron plant worker who managed to convey to the U.S. part of the documentation relating to the complex S- 155M and RP- 31 radar curtains . Therefore, the Russians took up , as formerly in the case of the MiG – 25P, in a reconstruction of the MiG -31 MiG- 31B . The aircraft was modernized radar RP- 31A Curtains -A of the revised software and improved antenna. Also added the new missile R- 33S longer-range target tracking and head for greater resistance to electronic interference . For self- assembled ejectors traps UW -3A . Significantly improved avionics , data links and navigation systems . MiG- 31B can exchange information with other fighters , as well as ground-based stations . Reach new data link has quadrupled . The aircraft has far- navigation systems, radio systems Kwiotok A -723 -2 and satellite GPS navigation definitely improve reliability in high latitudes .Serial production of this variant was launched at the beginning of 1990 and until 1994 was built a few dozen aircraft . Currently gradually rebuilds the earlier produced MiG -31 variant of the MiG- 3IBS by using podzspołów familiar with the MiG – 31B . MiG- 31M Since 1983 he regularly worked on wspominanym over in a jiffy – 31M , designed for the latest system RP- 31M -M curtains and a new missile R -37 . The first prototype of the MiG- 31M was flown in the center . Zukowski, December 21, 1985 year by the B. Orlov and L. Popov . The most important changes have affected avionics and weapons systems . Modern Curtains -M radar used in Migue – 31M has a range of more than 400km . The new radar antenna has less weight and better performance than the previous one . Curtains -M is also characterized by more complex software , including . The aircraft was larger internal fuel tanks , new engines and a modified cockpit . Fighter takes about two tons more fuel his weight gain of 6 tons, and the drive unit are two engines D- 30F -6M for over 16,500 kg. A characteristic feature of the exterior is dog tags long fairing extending from the cockpit tray with parachutes inhibitors . Curtains -M radar can guide the latest long range missiles R -37 and medium-range R -77 . R -37 missiles are mounted under the fuselage in the amount of 6 pieces , and four R -77 can be mounted under the wings of the airframe . In October 1993 the MiG- 31M as the world’s first fighter shot down a missile R -37 airborne target at a distance of 240km . So excellent fire control system , combined with modern weapons significantly increase the fighting ability of the MiG – 31M , estimated by the designers at up to approximately 2.5 times higher than the initial MiG -31. The first flight of the new version was held in December 1985. To date, produced about 10 copies. Despite the excellent characteristics of the aircraft will not enter the service , because the Russians now plagued chronic lack of resources and the solutions used to Migue – 31M are no doubt very expensive, but some of the solutions to comply with the machines already in linear units . Construction of the MiG – 31M was used as the basis for the creation of a number of essentially derived varieties and specialty . MiG- 31D The construction of the MiG -3 airframe based M such design of a hypothetical satellite destroyer MiG- 31D . The plane was a modified version of the basic airframe . Before nasadami top large inflows of wings , the wings ońcach triangular vertical fins , and a drive unit adapted from the MiG – 31M . It was established as part of the ” Star Wars ” as the bearer of a special rocket developed przeciwsatelitarnej PRZE Wympieł office . Although created several prototypes , however, the desirability of the project was finally challenged . However, he returned to in the mid 90′s , the development of the civil jiffy – 31S . MiG- 31S This is one of the latest draft version of the MiG -31. It is a civil platform for launching into space, small commercial satellites , which is an adaptation of previously planned missile destroyer MiG- 31S . To this end, they provide missile Mikron , which will be light commercial satellite with a mass of up to 100 – 120kg into orbit around the Earth . It is also envisaged the use of the MiG – 31S when fired suborbital project rakietoplanów ARS ( Aerospace Rally System) , designed for training astronauts , test the atmosphere and apparently even for purely commercial and advertising tourist flights . MiG- 31BM Now preparing a new version of the MiG -31 , designated MiG- 31BM , having a model for modernization are in the service of the machines. Aircraft will receive a completely new avionics and weapons . The existing fire control system Curtain -A slot antenna receives upgraded with a range of 300km . This system acquires the ability to track a cell 24 at the same time and guidance to them eight rockets. Systems of the aircraft will also be adapted to the new weapons , including new missiles R- 37M , R- 77M , and 9M96 missiles from the system S -400 anti-aircraft . The cockpit , fitted with a new multi-function displays provide a more comprehensive overview of the situation of the battle for the two crew members to be in part analogous to the cockpit of the modernized MiG – 29SMT . MiG- 31FE It is a variant of the target export variant of the MiG- 31BM . The weapon set significantly enhanced with modern equipment air-to- ground : bullets przeciwradiolokacyjne CH- 31P or przeciwokrętowe CH- 31A , missiles televised CH- 59M or less Ch -59 or Ch- 29T (led TV) or CH- 29L ( guided laser ) . They can also be directed bombs KAB – 500kr or heavier KAB – 1500L ( guided laser beam ) or KAB – 1500T ( directed TV) . MiG- 31FE was in 1999 and in 2000, China’s National People’s demonstrated at an exhibition in Beijing. It shows clearly the efforts of designers aimed to significantly enhance a possible ” package” of a contract for the MiG – 31FE . Sam MiG – 31FE represents some trend to which the U.S. has , inter alia, Grumman F- 14D ” Bombcat ” which set of weapons also predisposes to perform ground attack missions . In Russia, the idea of reconstruction of MiG -31 multirole aircraft not yet received official approval , although more and more talk now about the creation of unified complex assault and data exchange , which may be used on any modern Russian combat aircraft . This may be even more important when there is a pressing need to fill the gap after the end assault aircraft SU- 17M4 and MiG- 27M and equality disparities hardware after the last reorganization. Anyway Standart work on the MiG – 31BM and upgrading to this level of equipment included in the service should maintain a high level of combat value until the complete withdrawal of all machines which , as already hinted above, there will be no earlier than about the year 2025/2030 . Severe interceptors will always play a responsible role in pańswie of such a diverse topography and Russia . Perhaps the flagship of the tasks performed today by the MiG -31 will slowly rest on the shoulders of the lighter SU -30 and SU -34 , characterized by a long range patrol and modern fire control systems . However, in combat missions , where the key requirement is a fast response to the identified risks and disposal of air cell at a very high altitude flight , and at high speed machines with characteristics MiG -31 for the time being, will act as a priority.

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MiG-31 Foxhound ( 3 )

November 21st, 2013
by andrzej

MiG-31photo5

Ranks:

 

Mass production machines interceptor MiG -31 ” Foxhound ” was launched before the end of all tests and test flights . In June and July 1977, Sokol plant in Nizhny Novgorod ( the days of the Soviet Union was the Gorki ) , the first two serial aircraft with serial numbers 01-01 and 01-02 . Aircraft serial MiG -31 ( Izwielije 011) differ from the prototype machines (E- 155MP ) larger wing flaps , tail- less horizontal and przekonstruowanymi air brakes . Between the engines was established additional fairing that removes annoying vibrations of the rear part of the fuselage . Operational readiness of the first machines MiG -31 achieved in 1983 , and the first unit equipped with these planes was 786 IAP ( ” Istriebitiel Awiacjonnij Polka ” – ” Fighter Regiment “), Air Defence ( PWO – ” Powietrznyja Defense ” ) , stationed in Pravdinsk near Nizhny Novgorod , before using an MiG – 25PD . As already hinted above, the West first little news about the new interceptor fighter appeared after fleeing the Soviet Air Force pilot Viktor Belenki the aircraft MiG- 25P . In 1981, the U.S. published the first figure representing a hypothetical vision of how he could look like the MiG -31. In autumn 1985 years the MiG -31 was first photographed by the Norwegian F -16 over the Barents Sea and from then on it was determined in NATO code ” Foxhound ” . Manufacture of machinery MiG -31 in Nizhny Novgorod lasted until April 1994 , when it left the factory halls last, have a copy of the modified aircraft , designated MiG- 31M . In total, this time built around 450 aircraft of this type of all varieties . For the purpose of training crews used two-seat MiG – 25U . MiG -31 and MiG -25 were relatively similar in the pilot , so there was no urgent need for school and a training version of the MiG -31. Just before his fall, the Soviet Air Defence had 10 regiments excellently equipped for a total of about 300 MiG -31. They acted and act indeed to this day one of the key roles in the defense of Russia. They replenished the military units deployed at strategic points all over the Soviet Union , including in Monczegorsku , Gromov , Chotiłowie and Kotlas , shielding the country from the north, in Rostov- on-Don, where exercising the custody of the Black Sea , as well as Morszańsku and Bolshoi Sawino covering industrialized the center of the European part of Russia. On the eastern edge of Russia based regiments in Jelizowo Sokol in Kamchatka and Sakhalin . Near the border with China ‘s regiment in Bratsk , Russia and the central part of the machine with wspominanego patrol regiment in Pravdinsk . However, most likely, at the time the threat of war planes may be ferrying to other airports , mostly in the far north of the country . In the late 80′s and 90′s , the appeal machines TU -128 , SU- 15TM and the withdrawal of MiG – 25PD , the MiGach -31 slept almost the entire burden of the protection of vast areas of the Soviet Union . This was particularly important in the north, where there was the greatest probability of taking the impact of NATO ‘s strategic bombers . As mentioned earlier , the network of early warning systems and air defense is there extremely rare , which , incidentally, very conducive to the entry of low-flying , supersonic bomber machine type B- 1B Lancer . Therefore, the MiG -31 are designed with just such extreme conditions. Therefore, from the above mentioned bases MiG -31 , mostly in the center of Russia , for the duration of the threat of war planes probably will fly to other airports , most likely just to the north of the country. Sturdy , two-wheel main landing gear mounts used dog tags among other things , to facilitate machine handling the snow-covered runways . Due to the local poor radar network MiG -31 had very limited access to the information provided  control guidance on the ground. In this case, check the possibility of autonomous action , especially effective when mutual cooperation in the formation. Using this method the machine moving aircraft 4-6 groups at intervals up to 200/250km . In this way, thoroughly searched was a strip 800/1200km , exchanging vital information via data link . Today , devices enabling such cooperation to be nzastosowane including the upgraded MiG fighter 29SMT . The standardized tactical data exchange system was introduced in the U.S. Air Force at the beginning of the 80′s under the name of JTIDS and JSTARS . For the Russians, the system is still new , and only on completion of the work on this type of modules that may be applied in the near future for all airplanes PWO and WWS . ( see it really worth it )After the final collapse of Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the role of the MiG -31 in many respects considerably decreased. Since the United States ceased to be the ” main enemy ” and therefore in the absence of the threat of a massive NATO air strike , maintaining a large fleet of specialized interceptors in combat readiness was pointless . It was one of the main reasons for which in 1994 closed their serial production . Many machines were shifted to the reserve and reduced the amount of regiments sustained the highest level of combat readiness . On this day, the Russian Air Force is about 350 MiG -31 all versions. The council only foreign member of the MiG – 31 is Kazakhstan , which after the collapse of the Soviet Union accounted for about 30 aircraft from the former 356 IAP . Since the early 90′s, the Russians are trying to , as most of them military equipment , export MiG -31, but so far not found in any country seriously interested in buying them . Among others, it has been proposed Libya and Iraq , which, however, were covered by long embargo , as well as Sudan and China , which, however, decided to export the SU- 27sk . Even in Russia, his role began to gradually decrease. Interest in a jiffy -31 revived after several narrow NATO operations , including Desert Storm and directed against the former Yugoslavia, where cruise missiles were used and the tasks they put on MiGami -31 was to include DISABLE them . Thus, in Russia , these machines will be used in Russia , after extensive renovations and remodeling , even to the years 2025-2030 .

 

 

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MiG-31 Foxhound ( 2 )

November 21st, 2013
by andrzej

MiG-31photo10

Description of the structure:

 

MiG -31 is a heavy, twin-engine , two-seat fighter aircraft built in the classical system with redoubled vertical tail . The structure of the plane is made of stainless steels , titanium and aluminum alloys , the materials are used depending on the temperature distribution derived structures on the fly at speeds naddźwiękowymi . Despite these overall silhouette of the MiG – 25P, MiG -31 airframe is heavily modified. First of all construction materials have changed . So also participate steel decreased from 80 % to 50 % , titanium is 16 % and 30 % by weight of aluminum construction. This was due to better , after many years of service the MiG – 25P, identifying the most vulnerable high temperature of the airframe and the more the selective use of heavy metals. Fuselage the front oval , flattened on the sides for the air inlets of a broad cross-section close to the right angle . For the convenience of operation is divided into the front and rear . Front hull is made in the form of a conical shield of a dielectric material , which was placed at a fixed radar antenna with a diameter of 0.3m thickness ok.1.1 me , the weight is about 300kg . The antenna includes radar, electronic components weighing more than 700kg and a front compartment osprzętowy . On the left side of the front cabin is retractable refueling probe in the air. Under the fuselage , before landing gear are air brakes . The wing leading edge slant of 41 degrees , and the trailing edge of 9.30 degree are short and wide, has an area of 61.2 m On the upper surface of each wing ‘s aerodynamic comb . Slotted flaps span 2,682 m , each tilted by 30 degrees. Darts are spread at 1.7 m Swing up to 20 degrees . With the additional stiffening girder  wings , ailerons can be extended to the end of the airfoil. The four- wing leading edge flaps tilted 13 degrees nose down. Panel horizontal tail span is 8.74 m , respectively , 50.22 degree skew angle and height of the negative -1.25 degrees. Can be rotated clockwise or differentially for longitudinal control in flight at high speed. In the first case the deflection of the tail is +9 / -30 degrees , in the second +1.5 degree. The tail surfaces doubled , parted to the side of 8 degrees , a slant 54 degrees and surface 15.6 m Headset with an area of 2.12 m, tilted 25 degrees. Under the rear part of the fuselage by two combs aerodynamic surface of 3.0 m , diverging laterally at an angle of 12 degrees . The control system MiG – 31 is a classic hydraulic . Main Chassis MiG -31 is an original design. Instead of a single wheel with a diameter of 1300mm with MIGA -25 uses two smaller, KT -175 , measuring 950x300mm dog tags a common wheelchair. Wheel alignment is not typical , as the rear wheel does not move in the wake of the front , but a bit on the outside. This configuration was chosen for two reasons: to reduce ground pressure and because of the lack of space in the fuselage . Chassis front is doubled , the wheels KT -176 660x200mm sizes . Track of the main landing gear is 3,638 m and 7,113 m base chassis is equipped with oil- air cushioning . The power unit is based on two turbofan jet engines Solovyev D- 30F -6 of the 93.2kN each ( with afterburner maximum 152kN ) . Fuel consumption of the motor is nominally 0.72kg/kGh , and afterburner 1.9kg/kGh . The degree of bypass engine is 3:1 , the mass of 2415kg . Engine consists of a five low-pressure compressor compression ratio 3.0, the ten- high pressure compressor compression ratio 7.05 – both axial compressors placed on concentric shafts wsp61nie the corresponding turbine . – Annular combustion chamber , Cruising , with 12 injectors . Two-stage high-pressure turbine with blades cooled , two-stage turbine fan . The turbine kt6rą mixing chamber by exhaust gases from the air part of the low-pressure compressor enters the afterburner where it is an additional injection . Afterburner is finished supersonic nozzle with adjustable hydraulic system with an internal cross-section . The outer casing fixed nozzle geometry. Controls the motor placed underneath the front. Supply of fuel in the tanks inside the hull and ballast vertical is 16350kg . At the outer booms pylons can be mounted fuel tanks with a capacity receivables at 2500l . Plane is equipped with a complex combat system S- 155M . Its key elements are essentially : – Fire control system RP- 31 curtains fitted with a slot antenna with an electronic system scan phase N -007 with a range of 260km to seek equal to the effective reflection surface 16m , and the range of automatic tracking purposes oscillating in the limit of 160 km in the front hemisphere . For the rear hemisphere these numbers are 90 and 70 km . Target tracking range in size from 3m hitting the front hemisphere is 90km. The screen of the radar station at the same time can be a lot of goals, of which 10 are automatically tracked and digital on-board computer Argon -K selects one four most dangerous and independent guides to them four air -to-air missiles R- 33E . Viewing angle of the radar station curtains are 70 degrees azimuth , 70 degrees upward and 60 degrees downward. Curtains RP- 31 is the first in the world , and so far the only one in a fighter jet , used operationally radar station with an antenna with a phase scanning module . It was used because of its ability to continuous irradiation , and in practice allows the simultaneous guidance of missiles for the purpose of very far apart . Electronic scanning radar picked up a new level of demands on the speed of the transmission and processing of information. To meet these requirements in the RP- 31 curtains for the first time that has been used . multiplex signal transmission and processing of data just by a digital computer Argon -15 . So the new salary was so complicated that the required increase of operator crew weapons. ( see it really worth it ) The advantages of a modern radar scanning phase is also more resistant to interference and lack of moving mechanical parts , which have always been the source of a large part of the failure. On the other hand , such radars are much more expensive and require substantially more powerful computers to control . As mentioned earlier, the first generation radiolocator curtains was also very heavy, weighing over 1000 kg , of which there were 270 kg antenna . Curtains was the first and to the appearance of the AN/APG-77 , designed for przysłego F- 22 ” Raptor “, the only one in the world of hunting radar with electronic scanning . – Ciepłonamiernik 8TP , the antenna placed just below the nose the MiG -31. The marching position is half- hidden in the hull and combat position is lowered down , also at a speed of 3000 km / h The pilot uses it in the conduct of secret (or passive ) monitoring the airspace and dp aim when shooting with infrared guided missiles R- 40T and R- 60M . Termonamiernika 8TK angle is at 60 degrees to the left and 6 / -13 degrees vertically . Distance detection of fighter aircraft flying without afterburner is about 40 km ( from the rear hemisphere ) . However, if the enemy uses afterburner, the range increases to about 60km. Ciepłonamiernik can work with radar and get you the preliminary indication of its purpose. A typical way to work all Russian fighters operating in the country’s air defense system is called. komendowe guidance on target , where the plane is then under the control of the land and is remotely guided to the target by ground-based system Wozduch -1M or Luch -2 . It was only in the final phase of the attack , the fighter was derived in a good position to attack , the pilot takes the initiative includes on-board radar and fires rockets . To receive and decode commands from ground-based guidance systems MiG -31 was mentioned 5U15K equipment . Since the MiG -31 Capable of operating in regions where there is a continuous field of radar or radio-navigation systems , which is why the MiG -31 as the first interceptor in the USSR does not require constant assistance from the ground and can be used as an indication półautonomicznie to the earth is temporary or even disposable . The S – 155M yourself then generates a command to search for . It is worth noting that the possibility of autonomous operwania are greater in the case of group operations . In this kind of action six machines MiG -31 flies in the mutual distance of up to 200 km , and their on-board radar scour including a strip of up to 1200 km. Co-operation of aircraft in the group allows automatic exchange apparatus APD -518 and a device to determine the relative position of RadikałOWK , so that the rate of the tactical situation in the operator’s cabin MiG -31 contains information about the location of all fighters in both groups , as well as all detected the targets. Leader of the group is to coordinate the activities of the individual machines. Target detected by one of the aircraft can be shot down if necessary by another MiG -31. What’s more, the MiG -31 can also be used to co-operation with other , lighter fighters , such as the MiG -29 , assigning them targets , and by the way the crew of the MiG -31 alone can make the attack. MiG -31 could advise in this mode, three other machines. – Navigation serve on Migue -31 two systems . For distances up to 2000 km running Tropic , analogous to the west Loran and with precision 130- 1300m . At ranges from 2 to 10,000 km crew MiG -31 uses a system of routes , corresponding to the western Omega , determining the position of an aircraft with an accuracy of 1800-3600 m modules are adapted to operate in areas without continuous terrestrial network and under conditions of magnetic anomalies far North . The MiG -31 armament consists of permanently installed cannon GSz -6 -23 (there are variants of an airplane without a plot and the latest versions can quickly dismantle land on the ground) . It is a 23mm caliber gun sześciolufowe the rate of maksymalmej 6000 rounds per minute , with a supply of cartridges equal to 260 units. The basic equipment suspended aircraft guided missiles are long-range guided półaktywnie radiolokacyjnie R- 33E , placed in a specially adapted hull of the AKU -33 launchers , pushed back from him before firing pyrotechnic projectile with a parallel linking mechanism . R- 33E missiles are specially designed for the MiG -31 ( tried it later on other aircraft , including but not limited to SU-27M/SU-35 ) . They have a mass of about 630 kg and reach of 120 km . Later versions of the MiG -31 can carry R- 33S missile with a range increased to 160 km and with a modernized system of guidance with a greater range search . MiG- 31 can also carry two underwing launchers , known for the MiG – 25P, guided missiles, medium-range infrared R- 40T or R- 40TD , or four short-range missiles R- 60M . Then the plane adapted to carry more modern missiles R -73 ( the two on the bar ), and R -77 . R -73 missile is the primary aircraft used by the Commonwealth of Independent States in the struggle to maneuver , and R – 60M is currently used primarily as a defensive armament of aircraft other than hunting . Roll the MiG -31 is a two-seater , with the crew seats in tandem . It is encapsulated automatically after closing covers. Shields cabins are opened independently of the rear hydraulic cylinders , pyrotechnic charges shot down in an emergency. The rear cabin is equipped with a retractable periscope . Pilots take their seats in the cabin in special air-conditioned garments compensation , similar to space suits , ensuring the pilot to maintain the necessary conditions for the operation of a wide range of pressures and temperatures outside . Initially, the pilots were sitting on chairs KM- 1M , and later built the machine already installed with a much more modern models seat K- 36D class 0/ 0, to ensure the safe to leave the plane by two crew members in the full range of speeds and altitudes .

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